Why are Children Still Working?

Heri Sandra, Taufiq Carnegie Dawood, M. Shabri Abd. Majid


This study aims to determine the effect of household characteristics and children's living environment on child labor to reduce the likelihood of child labor occurrence. The data source of this research is Sakernas (Indonesian National Labor Force Survey) of August 2018, including school accreditation, household head gender, age, working sector, employment status, household size, dependency ratio, location, and school quality, towards the probability of child labor occurrence in Indonesia. Results suggest that the government must prioritize welfare programs for women household heads, asses the minimum age for marriage, improve education facilities, and increase parental awareness to eliminate child labor. The government needs to improve education infrastructure. This infrastructure improvement should be accompanied by the convenience of school access and its costs. The lack of education infrastructure, especialy in rural areas makes it difficult for children there to attend formal schooling.


Child Labor; Households; Quality Education

Full Text:



Afriyie, L. T., Saeed, B. I., & Alhassan, A. (2019). Determinants of child labour practices in Ghana. Journal of Public Health, 27(2), 211–217. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-018-0935-3

Ali, D. H. A., & Haszelinna, D. (2016). Incidence of Child Labour in Indonesia: Determinants, Trade-off Between Work and School, Non-leisure Time Allocation and Son Preference. Swansea University.

Ali, D. H. binti A., & Arabsheibani, G. R. (2017). Child labour in Indonesia: supply-side determinants. Economics and Finance in Indonesia, 62(3), 162. https://doi.org/10.7454/efi.v62i3.555

Bae, S. H. (2007). The relationship between ISO 9000 participation and educational outcomes of schools. Quality Assurance in Education.

Bhalotra, S. (2003). Child farm labor: The wealth paradox. The World Bank Economic Review, 17(2), 197–227. https://doi.org/10.1093/wber/lhg017

Binci, M., & Giannelli, G. C. (2016). Internal versus international migration: Impacts of remittances on child labor and schooling in Vietnam. International Migration Review, 52(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/imre.12267

Canagarajah, S., & Coulombe, H. (1999). Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-1844

Chakrabarty, S. (2015). A nexus between child labour and microfinance: an empirical investigation. Economic Papers: A Journal of Applied Economics and Policy 34, No. 1-2 (2015): 76-91., 34(1), 76–91. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/1759-3441.12098

Chong, A., & Yanez-Pagans, M. (2019). Not so fast! cash transfers can increase child labor: Evidence for Bolivia. Economics Letters, 179, 57–61. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2019.03.021

Cummings, P. M. (2016). Child labor and household composition: Determinants of child labor in Mexico. Asian Journal of Latin American Studies 29, No. 3 (2016): 29-54., 29(3), 29–54.

Dawood, T. C., Pratama, H., Masbar, R., & Effendi, R. (2019). Does financial inclusion alleviate household poverty? Empirical evidence from Indonesia. Economics & Sociology, 12(2), 235-252. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2019/12-2/14

He, H. (2016). Child labour and academic achievement: Evidence from Gansu Province in China. China Economic Review, 38, 130–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2015.12.008

Ibrahim, A., Abdalla, S. M., Jafer, M., Abdelgadir, J., & De Vries, N. (2019). Child labor and health: A systematic literature review of the impacts of child labor on child’s health in low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Public Health, 41(1), 18–26. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy018

ILO. (2017). Global estimates of child labour: Results and trends, 2012-2016. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.02.006

ILO. (2020). The worst forms of child labour. Retrieved from The worst forms of child labour website: https://www.ilo.org/ipec/Campaignandadvocacy/Youthinaction/C182-Youth-orientated/worstforms/lang--en/index.htm

Lima, L. R., Mesquita, S., & Wanamaker, M. (2015). Child labor and the wealth paradox: The role of altruistic parents. Economics Letters, 130, 80–82. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2015.03.005

Novella, R. (2018). Orphanhood, household relationships, school attendance and child labor in Zimbabwe. Journal of International Development, 30(5), 725–744. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.3353

Oryoie, A. R., Alwang, J., & Tideman, N. (2017). Child labor and household land holding: Theory and empirical evidence from Zimbabwe. World Development, 100, 45–58. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.025

Priyambada, A., Suryahadi, A., & Sumarto, S. (2005). What happened to child labor in Indonesia during the economic crisis? The trade-off between school and work. Jakarta.

Putri, E. I. S., & Prasetyani, D. (2021). New evidence of individual level of happiness in Indonesia: Does Easterlin Paradox matter? Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Studi Pembangunan, 13(1), 60-71.

Ravallion, M., & Wodon, Q. (1999). Does child labor displace schooling? Evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy.

Susanli, Z. B., Inanc-Tuncer, O., & Kologlugil, S. (2016). Child domestic labour and mothers’ employment in Turkey. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 29(1), 967–979. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2016.1204100

Tang, C., Zhao, L., & Zhao, Z. (2018). Child labor in China. China Economic Review, 51, 149–166. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2016.05.006

Webbink, E., Smits, J., & de Jong, E. (2012). Hidden child labor: Determinants of housework and family business work of children in 16 developing countries. World Development, 40(3), 631–642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.07.005

Yah, N. C. (2020). The political economy of financial reforms in Cameroon. Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Studi Pembangunan, 12(2), 127-142.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN (Print) 2086-1575       ISSN (Online) 2502-7115

View My Stats

Directory of Open Access Journals

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.