Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN) - Based Reading Intervention for Children with Learning Disabilities

Ranti Novianti, Salma Nadiyah, Azhar Pratama, Yoga Budhi Santoso, Argiasri Mustika, Prinanda Gustarina Ridwan


In addition to phonology, the cause of reading problems in children with difficulty learning to read can occur due to obstacles in Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN). The purpose of this study is to develop a reading intervention program based on Rapid Automatic Naming for children with reading difficulties. This study uses a qualitative research approach with the method applied in this study is a qualitative descriptive method. A reading intervention program based on Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN) for children with learning difficulties to read that can be used by teachers, parents or those in need in order to help children with learning difficulties in reading. The result of this research is the Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN) based Reading Intervention program.


Children with Learning Disabilities, Reading Intervention Based on Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN).

Full Text:



Blachman, B. A. (1984). Relationship of rapid naming ability and language analysis skills to kindergarten and first-grade reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 610. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.76.4.610

Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read—a causal connection. Nature, 301(5899), 419-421. https://doi.org/10.1038/301419a0

Bus, A. G., & Van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1999). Phonological awareness and early reading: A meta-analysis of experimental training studies. Journal of educational psychology, 91(3), 403–414. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.3.403

Compton, R. J. (2003). The interface between emotion and attention: A review of evidence from psychology and neuroscience. Behavioral and cognitive neuroscience reviews, 2(2), 115-129. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534582303002002003

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2016). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications.

Cutting, L. E., & Denckla, M. B. (2001). The relationship of rapid serial naming and word reading in normally developing readers: An exploratory model. Reading and Writing, 14, 673-705. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012047622541

De Jong, P. F., & Van der Leij, A. (1999). Specific contributions of phonological abilities to early reading acquisition: Results from a Dutch latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of educational psychology, 91(3), 450–476. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.3.450

Foorman, B. R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small‐group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(4), 203-212. https://doi.org/10.1111/0938-8982.00020

Georgiou, G. K., Parrila, R., & Liao, C. H. (2008). Rapid naming speed and reading across languages that vary in orthographic consistency. Reading and writing, 21, 885-903. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-007-9096-4

Georgiou, G. K., Parrila, R., Manolitsis, G., & Kirby, J. R. (2011). Examining the Importance of Assessing Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) for the Identification of Children with Reading Difficulties. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 9(2), 5-26.

Landerl, K., & Wimmer, H. (2008). Development of word reading fluency and spelling in a consistent orthography: An 8-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 150–161. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.100.1.150

Lepola, J., Poskiparta, E., Laakkonen, E., & Niemi, P. (2005). Development of and relationship between phonological and motivational processes and naming speed in predicting word recognition in grade 1. Scientific studies of reading, 9(4), 367-399. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0904_3

Lipka, O., & Siegel, L. S. (2012). The development of reading comprehension skills in children learning English as a second language. Reading and Writing, 25, 1873-1898. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9309-8

Mikulecky & Jeffries (2007) Advanced Reading Power. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. sage.

Mukhtar, S., & Putri, K. (2021). Technology integrated on media literacy in economic studies on higher education. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 12(1), 95-123.

Mustika, A., Novianti, R., & Nadiyah, S. (2023). Improving Deaf Children's Writing Skills using Learning Card Series. Journal of ICSAR, 7(1), 167-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um005v7i12023p167

Nadiyah, S., Susetyo, B., Tarsidi, I., Novianti, R., Ediyanto, E., Susilawati, S. Y., & Santoso, Y. B. (2022). Development of Identification Instruments for Children with Specific Learning Disability in Elementary School. Journal of ICSAR, 6(1), 116-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um005v6i12022p116

Nadiyah, S., Tukimin, S., Susetyo, B., Tarsidi, I., Novianti, R., Hutasuhut, F. H., & Widia, A. (2022). The Effect of Rapid Automatic Naming on Reading Readiness for Children with Reading Difficulties in Elementary School. Inclusive Education, 1(1), 93-109. https://doi.org/10.57142/inclusion.v1i1.14

Parrila, R., Georgiou, G., & Corkett, J. (2007). University Students with a Significant Historyof Reading Difficulties: What Is and Is Not Compensated?. Exceptionality Education International, 17(2). https://doi.org/10.5206/eei.v17i2.7604

Pennington, B. F. (2008). Diagnosing learning disorders: A neuropsychological framework. Guilford Press.

Powell, D., Stainthorp, R., Stuart, M., Garwood, H., & Quinlan, P. (2007). An experimental comparison between rival theories of rapid automatized naming performance and its relationship to reading. Journal of experimental child psychology, 98(1), 46-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2007.04.003

Rack, J. P., Snowling, M. J., & Olson, R. K. (1992). The Nonword Reading Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia: A Review. Reading Research Quarterly, 27(1), 29–53. https://doi.org/10.2307/747832

Ridwan, P. G., Novianti, R., & Koestieni, E. (2023). Learning Strategies Through Babbling Techniques to Improve Language Comprehension Ability in Deaf Children at YPLAB SLB Lembang West Java. Journal of ICSAR, 7(2), 212-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um005v7i22023p212212.

Scarborough, H. S. (1998). Predicting the future achievement of second graders with reading disabilities: Contributions of phonemic awareness, verbal memory, rapid naming, and IQ. Annals of Dyslexia, 48, 115-136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-998-0006-5

Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Carlson, C. D., & Foorman, B. R. (2004). Kindergarten Prediction of Reading Skills: A Longitudinal Comparative Analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(2), 265–282. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.96.2.265

Siegel, L. S., & Ryan, E. B. (1988). Development of grammatical-sensitivity, phonological, and short-term memory skills in normally achieving and learning-disabled children. Developmental psychology, 24(1), 28. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.24.1.28

Stanovich, K. E., & Siegel, L. S. (1994). Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 24–53. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.86.1.24

Sugiyono. 2008. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R&D [Quantitative, Qualitative and R&D Research Methods]. Bandung: Alfabeta

Sungadji, E. M. (2010). Sopiah. 2010. Metodologi Penelitian Pendekatan Praktis dalam Penelitian. [Research Methodology A Practical Approach to Research]

Torgesen, J. K. (1982). The learning-disabled child as an inactive learner: educational implications. Topics in Learning & Learning Disabilities.

Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Longitudinal studies of phonological processing and reading. Journal of learning disabilities, 27(5), 276-286. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221949402700503

Tunmer, W., & Greaney, K. (2010). Defining dyslexia. Journal of learning Disabilities, 43(3), 229-243. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219409345009

Westwood, R., Sparrow, P., & Leung, A. (2001). Challenges to the psychological contract in Hong Kong. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(4), 621-651.

Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (1999). The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 415–438. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.3.415

Wood, F. B., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2001). Emerging issues in the genetics of dyslexia: A methodological preview. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(6), 503-511. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221940103400603

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um005v8i1p96


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of ICSAR

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of ICSAR is Indexing by:



counter  ---> View Statistic

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.