Korelasi pola gerakan mata dengan kemampuan membaca pemahaman

Rosita Rahma, Jatmika Nurhadi, Aswan Aswan


Correlation of eye movement patterns with reading comprehension ability

This study aims to determine the relationship between eye movement patterns and reading comprehension skills. Data were collected from 20 participants during reading comprehension activities using the Tobii Eye Tracker. Hypothesis testing conducted using the Chi-square Test through Crosstabs analysis shows the value of Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.788 > 0.05, which leads to a conclusion that Ho is accepted and Ha is rejected. Therefore, we conclude that there is no relationship between eye movement patterns and the reading comprehension ability among the participants. This is because eye movement patterns are visual technical in nature, while the ability to read comprehension is more likely to lead to one's cognition. Although there is no relationship between eye movement patterns and reading comprehension, eye movements can be used to identify cognitive processes during reading activities. For example, determining the time needed in the reading process, identifying the level of text familiarity, the reader's predictability, and a person's weakness in reading.

Keywords: eye movement patterns, reading comprehension, reading skill, eye tracker

Korelasi pola gerakan mata dengan kemampuan membaca pemahaman

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara pola gerakan mata dengan kemampuan membaca pemahaman. Pengambilan data terhadap 20 responden dilakukan pada saat aktivitas membaca pemahaman dengan menggunakan Tobii Eye Tracker. Uji hipotesis dengan menggunakan Chi-square Test melalui analisis Crosstabs menunjukkan nilai Asymp. Sig. (2 sided) 0,788 > 0,05, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa Ho diterima dan Ha ditolak. Artinya, tidak terdapat hubungan antara pola gerakan mata dengan kemampuan membaca pemahaman responden. Hal ini disebabkan karena pola gerakan mata bersifat visual teknis, sedangkan kemampuan membaca pemahaman lebih cenderung ke arah kognisi seseorang. Meskipun tidak ada hubungan antara pola gerakan mata dengan membaca pemahaman, gerakan mata dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi proses kognitif pada saat aktivitas membaca dilakukan. Misalnya, menentukan waktu yang diperlukan pada proses membaca, mengidentifikasi tingkat keakraban teks, kemampuan prediktabilitas pembaca, serta kelemahan seseorang dalam membaca.

Kata kunci: pola gerakan mata, membaca pemahaman, kemampuan membaca, pelacak gerakan mata

Full Text:



Aloqaili, A. S. (2012). The relationship between reading comprehension and critical thinking: A theoretical study. Journal of King Saud University-Languages and Translation, 24(1), 35–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksult.2011.01.001

Abidin, Y. (2012). Pembelajaran membaca berbasis pendidikan karakter. PT Refika Aditama.

Alharbi, M. A. (2015). Reading strategies, learning styles and reading comprehension: A correlation study. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 6(6). 1257–1268. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0606.13

Andrienko, G. Andrienko, N. Burch, M. Weiskopf, D. (2012). Visual analytics methodology for eye movement studies. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 18(12), 2889—2898. https://doi.org/10.1109/tvcg.2012.276

Arikunto, S. (2010). Dasar-dasar evaluasi pendidikan (Edisi Revisi). Bumi Aksara.

Barnes, A. E., & Kim, Y. S. (2016). Low-skilled adult readers look like typically developing child readers: A comparison of reading skills and eye movement behavior. Reading and Writing, 29(9), 1889–1914. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9657-5

Brysbaert, M., & Vitu, F. (1998). Word skipping: Implications for theories of eye movement control in reading. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Eye guidance in reading and scene perception (pp. 125—148). Elsevier.

Castles, A., Rastle, K., & Nation, K. (2018). Ending the reading wars: Reading acquisition from novice to expert. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(1), 5–51.

Collewijn, H. (1998). Eye movement recording. In R. H. S. Carpenter & J. G. Robson (Eds.), Vision research: a practical guide to laboratory methods (pp. 245–285). Oxford University Press.

Cop, U., Drieghe, D., & Duyck, W. (2015). Eye movement patterns in natural reading: A comparison of monolingual and bilingual reading of a novel. PloS One, 10(8), 1—38. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134008

Dalman. (2016). Keterampilan membaca. Grafindo Persada.

Demareva, V., & Edeleva, Y. (2020). Eye-tracking based L2 detection: Universal and specific eye movement patterns in L1 and L2 reading. Procedia Computer Science, 169, 673—676. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2020.02.185

Drieghe, D., Brysbaert, M., Desmet, T., & De Baecke, C. (2004). Word skipping in reading: On the interplay of linguistic and visual factors. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 161(2), 79—103.

Efendy, A. G., & Sulistyo, G. H. (2019). Reading strategy ’s failure to deliver toward reading comprehension. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, dan Pengembangan, 4(8), 1034–1042.

Elleman, A. M., & Oslund, E. L. (2019). Reading comprehension research: Implications for practice and policy. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6(1), 3–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2372732218816339

Ghabanchi, Z., & Rastegar, R. E. (2014). The correlation of IQ and emotional intelligence with reading comprehension. Reading, 14(2), 135—144.

Goodwin, A. P., Cho, S. J., Reynolds, D., Brady, K., & Salas, J. (2020). Digital versus paper reading processes and links to comprehension for middle school students. American Educational Research Journal, 57(4), 1837–1867. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831219890300

Gruhn, S., Segers, E., Keuning, J., & Verhoeven, L. (2020). Profiling children’s reading comprehension: A dynamic approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 82(101923), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2020.101923

Hamalik, O. (2010). Kurikulum dan pembelajaran. Bumi Aksara.

Hansen, D. W., & Ji, Q. (2010). In the eye of the beholder: A survey of models for eyes and gaze. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 32(3), 478–500. https://doi.org/10.1109/tpami.2009.30

Hardani, K., & Suwignyo, H. (2020). Bahan ajar keterampilan membaca berbasis progress in international reading literacy study untuk siswa kelas IV sekolah dasar. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, dan Pengembangan, 5(6), 803–808.

Holmqvist, K., Nyström, N., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & Van de Weijer, J. (2011). Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures. Oxford University Press.

Johansson, R., Holmqvist, K., Mossberg, F., & Lindgren, M. (2012). Eye movements and reading comprehension while listening to preferred and non-preferred study music. Psychology of Music, 40(3), 339–356. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735610387777

Johnson, A. P. (2015). 10 essential instructional elements for students with reading difficulties: A brain-friendly approach. Corwin Press.

Joseph, H., Wonnacott, E., & Nation, K. (2020). Online inference making and comprehension monitoring in children during reading: Evidence from eye movements. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1—23. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747021821999007

Joshi, R. M., Tao, S., Aaron, P. G., & Quiroz, B. (2012). Cognitive component of componential model of reading applied to different orthographies. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45, 480–486.

Kendeou, P., McMaster, K. L., & Christ, T. J. (2016). Reading comprehension: Core components and processes. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(1), 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1177/2372732215624707

Leu, D. J., Kinzer, C. K., Coiro, J., Castek, J., Henry, L. A. (2013). New literacies and the new literacies of online reading comprehension: A dual level theory. In N. Unrau, D. Alvermann. (Eds.), Theoretical models and process of reading, 6th ed. (pp. 1150-1181). International Reading Association.

McMaster, K. L., Espin, C. A., & van den Broek, P. (2014). Making connections: Linking cognitive psychology and intervention research to improve comprehension of struggling readers. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 29, 17–24.

Mellard, D. F., Woods, K. L., Desa, Z. D. M., & Vuyk, M. A. (2015). Underlying reading-related skills and abilities among adult learners. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48, 310—322.

Muijselaar, M. M., Swart, N. M., Steenbeek-Planting, E. G., Droop, M., Verhoeven, L., & de Jong, P. F. (2017). Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies. Scientific Studies of Reading, 21(3), 194—209.

Nation, K. (2019). Children’s reading difficulties, language, and reflections on the simple view of reading. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/19404158.2019.1609272

Nurjanah, R., Widiawati, U., & Suardana, I. M. (2020). Big book dan sustained silent reading untuk meningkatkan kemampuan membaca pemahaman. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, dan Pengembangan, 5(7), 920–925.

Perfetti, C. (2008). Reading ability: Lexical quality to comprehension (vol 11, pg 357, 2007). Scientific Studies of Reading, 12(1), 130.

Pernice, K. (2019). Text scanning patterns: eyetracking evidence [Online]. Downloaded from: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/text-scanning-patterns-eyetracking/ (accessed 18 April 2021).

Petscher, Y., Solari, E. J., & Catts, H. W. (2019). Conditional longitudinal relations of elementary literacy skills to high school reading comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 52(4), 324–336. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219419851757

Pooresmaeil, E., Mohamadi, R., Ghorbani, A., & Kamali, M. (2019). The relationship between comprehension of syntax and reading comprehension in cochlear implanted and hearing children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 121, 114—119.

Potocki, A., Sanchez, M., Ecalle, J., & Magnan, A. (2015). Linguistic and cognitive profiles of 8- to 15-Year-old children with specific reading comprehension difficulties: The role of executive functions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(2), 128—142. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219415613080

Radach, R., & Kennedy, A. (2004). Theoretical perspectives on eye movements in reading: Past controversies, current issues, and an agenda for future research. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 16(1-2), 3-26.

Rahma, R., & Sudana, U., & Aswan (2020). Eye movement patterns on screen readers. In 4th International Conference on Language, Literature, Culture, and Education (ICOLLITE 2020). 635—639. Atlantis Press.

Raney, G. E., Campbell, S. J., & Bovee, J. C. (2014). Using eye movements to evaluate the cognitive processes involved in text comprehension. Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE, (83), e50780. https://doi.org/10.3791/50780

Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 372—422.

Sabatini, J. P., Sawaki, Y., Shore, J. R., & Scarborough, S. H. (2010). Relationships among reading skills of adults with low literacy. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43, 122—13.

Santoso, S. (2014). Panduan lengkap SPSS versi 20. Gramedia.

Sargezeh, B. A., Tavakoli, N., & Daliri, M. R. (2019). Gender-based eye movement differences in passive indoor picture viewing: An eye-tracking study. Physiology and Behavior, 206(March), 43—50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.03.023

Schooler, J. W., Smallwood, J., Christoff, K., Handy, T. C., Reichle, E. D., & Sayette, M. A. (2011). Meta-awareness, perceptual decoupling and the wandering mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 319—326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2011.05.006

Shaunessy-Dedrick, E., Evans, L., Ferron, J., & Lindo, M. (2015). Effects of differentiated reading on elementary students’ reading comprehension and attitudes toward reading. Gifted Child Quarterly, 59(2), 91—107. https://doi.org/10.1177/0016986214568718

Somadayo, S. (2011). Strategi dan teknik pembelajaran membaca. Graha Ilmu.

Spencer, M., & Wagner, R. K. (2018). The comprehension problems of children with poor reading comprehension despite adequate decoding: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 88(3), 366—400. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654317749187

Steindorf, L., Rummel, J. (2020). Do your eyes give you away? A validation study of eye-movement measures used as indicators for mindless reading. Behavior Research Methods, 52, 162—176. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01214-4

Subyantoro. (2011). Pengembangan keterampilan membaca cepat. Graha Ilmu.

Tampubolon, D. P. (2015). Kemampuan membaca: Teknik membaca efektif dan efisien. Angkasa.

Tarigan, H. G. (2009). Menulis sebagai suatu keterampilan berbahasa. Angkasa.

Valliappan, N., Dai, N., Steinberg, E., He, J., Rogers, K., Ramachandran, V., Xu, P., Shojaeizadeh, M., Guo, L., Kohlhoff, K. & Navalpakkam, V. (2020). Accelerating eye movement research via accurate and affordable smartphone eye tracking. Nature Communications, 11(1), 1—12.

Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Capin, P., Miciak, J., Cho, E., & Fletcher, J. M. (2019). How initial word reading and language skills affect reading comprehension outcomes for students with reading difficulties. Exceptional Children, 85(2), 180—196. https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402918782618

White, B. K. (2012). Understanding reading comprehension in high school. Queen University.

Zargar, E., Adams, A. M., & Connor, C. M. (2020). The relations between children's comprehension monitoring and their reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge: an eye-movement study. Reading and Writing, 33(3), 511—545. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-019-

Zhang, S., & Zhang, X. (2020). The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and L2 reading/listening comprehension: A meta-analysis. Language Teaching Research, 1—30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820913998


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Bahasa dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, dan Pengajarannya is licensed under
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
View My Stats
Based on the Decision Letter of the Director General of Research and Technology Development of the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education No. 21 / E / KPT / 2018, dated July 9, 2018, Bahasa dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni dan Pengajarannya are included in  RANK 2 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC ACCREDITATION PERIOD I YEAR 2018 . This rating status is valid for 5 (five) years.

Editorial Office:
Jl. Semarang 5 Kota Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia 65145

Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
JPtpp is licensed under