Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Warga Negara dan Kekuatan Metode Debat

A. Jauhar Fuad

Abstract


Abstrak: Setiap warga negara dituntut memiliki kemampuan berpikir kritis dalam menjalankan kehidupan. Kemampuan berpikir kritis menjadi kebutuhan yang mendasar di masa mendatang dalam memutuskan berbagai permasalahan yang muncul dengan cepat dan komplek, keputusan yang diambil juga harus cermat. Warga negara tidak mungkin memiliki kemampuan berpikir kritis jika tidak dibelajarkan sejak awal, dimana kemampuan berpikir kritis akan berkembang dalam proses belajar yang mendorong keterlibatan pebelajar secara aktif, baik secara fisik dan psikis, sehingga tidak akan muncul dalam kegiatan belajar yang pasif, pebelajar tidak memiliki banyak peran. Belajar aktif, mendorong pebelajar untuk mendengar, berbicara, membaca dan menulis. Mereka mengevaluasi, menganalisi, merefleksi, mensitesis, dan kesimpulan. Pembelajaran aktif dapat ditemukan dalam kegiatan belajar yang memposisikan pebelajar pada peran strategisnya. Metode yang menekankan pembelajaran aktif dapat ditemukan dalam metode debat. Metode ini membahas tema yang baru dan kontoversi, pengembangan kemampuan lisan, dan tertulis; membedakan fakta dari penilaian dan pengetahuan dari keyakinan, dan mewujudkan standar intelektual seperti akurasi, dukungan pembuktian, kejelasan dan logika. Metode ini, merupakan bentuk kontroversi lisan yang terdiri dari presentasi sistematis menentang argumen tentang topik yang dipahami pihak lain. Untuk setiap isu, pasti terdapat berbagai sudut pandang terhadap isu tersebut: alasan-alasan mengapa seseorang dapat mendukung atau tidak mendukung suatu isu. Tujuan dari debat adalah untuk mengeksplorasi alasan-alasan di belakang setiap sudut pandang. Agar alasan tersebut dapat dimengerti secara persuasif.

Abstract: Every citizen is required to have the ability to think critically in carrying out life. Critical thinking ability is a fundamental need in the future in deciding various problems that arise quickly and complex, decisions taken must also be careful. Citizens may not have the ability to think critically if they are not taught from the beginning, where critical thinking skills will develop in the learning process that encourages active student involvement, both physically and psychologically, so that they will not appear in passive learning activities, students do not have much role. Active learning encourages students to hear, speak, read and write. They evaluate, analyze, reflect, sensitizes, and conclusions. Active learning can be found in learning activities that position students in their strategic roles. Methods that emphasize active learning can be found in the debate method. This method addresses new themes and controversies, the development of oral and written abilities; distinguish facts from judgment and knowledge of beliefs, and realize intellectual standards such as accuracy, evidence support, clarity, and logic. This method is a form of oral controversy that consists of systematic presentations against arguments on topics understood by others. For each issue, there must be various perspectives on the issue: reasons why someone can support or not support an issue. The purpose of the debate is to explore the reasons behind each point of view. So that these reasons can be understood persuasively.


Keywords


critical thinking skills; debating methods; citizens; kemampuan berpikir kritis; metode debat; warga negara

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um031v1i12014p058

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