The Effect of Chemical Pretreatment Process on Mechanical Properties and Porosity of Cellulose Bacterial Film

Tito Arif Sutrisno, Heru Suryanto, Retno Wulandari, M. Muhajir, S.M.Shahrul N.S. Zahari

Abstract


Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural polymer which have superior properties, like high porosity, high purity, and high permeability. The study objective is to determine the influence of chemical pretreatment on tensile strength and the porosity of BC. The method was to make BC films from pineapple peel extract through fermentation process for 14 days. The pretreatment was conducted by immersion of BC in BmimCl, H2O2, and NaOH solution with a concentration of 2.5%; 5%; and 7.5 %, heated at 80 °C then dried in the oven, and the samples were then tested by a tensile test using ASTM-D636-V standard, morphology analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope, and porosity analysis. The results indicate that the tensile strength of control sample was 123 MPa, whereas after chemical pretreatment, the tensile strength was decreased with the greater reduction occurred using NaOH pretreatment compared than the other solutions that having a lower tensile strength of 8.54 MPa at 7.5 % of NaOH. The results of porosity show that the value increased after being treated chemically. The BC film porosity was 87.13% after  NaOH treatment of 7.5% while BC film untreated had porosity of 19.15%. This phenomenon was occurred due to the increasing pore, so the absorption of water increased.


Full Text:

PDF

References


I. Reiniati, A. N. Hrymak, and A. Margaritis, “Recent developments in the production and applications of bacterial cellulose fibers and nanocrystals,” Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 510–524, 2017.

A. R. Emilia, “Effect of Temperature and NaOH Concentration on the Hydrothermal Process of Rice Straw for Biogas Raw Materials,” Department of Industrial Engineering ITS. 2017.(in Indonesian).

A. Junka., “Correlation between type of alkali rinsing, cytotoxicity of bio-nanocellulose and presence of metabolites within cellulose membranes,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 157, pp. 371–379, 2017.

P. Lestari, N. Elfrida, A. Suryani, and Y. Suryadi, “Study on the Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum using Agro-Waste,” Journal of Biological Science, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 2014.

A. Jagannath, P. S. Raju, and A. S. Bawa, “Comparative evaluation of bacterial cellulose (nata) as a cryoprotectant and carrier support during the freeze-drying process of probiotic lactic acid bacteria,” LWT - Food Sci. Technol., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1197–1203, 2010.

M. Zeng, A. Laromaine, and A. Roig, “Bacterial Cellulose Films: Influence of Bacterial Strain and Drying Route on Film Properties,” Cellulose, vol. 21, pp. 4455–4469, 2014.

S. P. Lin, I. Loira Calvar, J. M. Catchmark, J. R. Liu, A. Demirci, and K. C. Cheng, “Biosynthesis, production, and applications of bacterial cellulose,” Cellulose, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 2191–2219, 2013.

M. E. Fuller, C. Andaya, and K. McClay, “Evaluation of ATR-FTIR for analysis of bacterial cellulose impurities,” J. Microbiol. Methods, vol. 144, no. October 2017, pp. 145–151, 2018.

C. Babac, “Production and Characterization of Biodegradable Bacterial Cellulose Membranes,” International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences,3(2), pp. 1–2 vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1–2, 2009.

C. Castro, Zuluaga, R., Alvares, C., “Bacterial cellulose produced by a new acid-resistant strain of Gluconacetobacter genus,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 1033–1037, 2012.

Y. Dahman, “Nanostructured Biomaterials and Biocomposites from Bacterial Cellulose Nanofibers,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 5105–5122, 2009.

K. C. C. De Carvalho Benini, P. H. F. Pereira, M. O. H. Cioffi, and H. J. Cornelis Voorwald, “Effect of acid hydrolysis conditions on the degradation properties of cellulose from Imperata brasiliensis fibers,” Procedia Eng., vol. 200, pp. 244–251, 2017.

A. M. M. Edeerozey, H. M. Akil, A. B. Azhar, and M. I. Z. Ariffin, “Chemical modification of kenaf fibers,” Mater. Lett., vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 2023–2025, 2007.

Y. Xie, C. A. S. Hill, Z. Xiao, H. Militz, and C. Mai, “Silane coupling agents used for natural fiber/polymer composites: A review,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf., vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 806–819, 2010.

A. H. Surest and D. Satriawan, “Caustic Soda Process (NaOH Concentration, Cooking Temperature And Cooking Time),” Journal of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Universitas Sriwijaya, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2010 (in Indonesian).

P. Tang, B. Ji, and G. Sun, “Whiteness improvement of citric acid crosslinked cotton fabrics: H2O2bleaching under alkaline condition,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 147, pp. 139–145, 2016.

A.H. Bhat, Y.K. Dasan, I.Khan., M. Jawaid, "Cellulosic Biocomposites: Potential Material for Future". in Green Biocomposite, Springer Nature Switzerland. 2019.

H. Suryanto, “Analysis of the structure of cellulose fibers from bacteria,” Pros. SNTT 2017 – Politek. Negeri Malang, vol. 3, no. October, pp. 17–22, 2017. (in Indonesian)

M. Jonoobi, A. P. Mathew, and K. Oksman, “Producing low-cost cellulose nanofiber from sludge as new source of raw materials,” Ind. Crop. Prod., vol. 40, pp. 232–238, 2012.

N. Hasan, D. Radiah, A. Biak, and S. Kamarudin, “Advanced Science Information Technology Application of Bacterial Cellulose (BC), in Natural Facial Scrub,” pp. 1–4, 2012.

G. J. M. Rocha, C. Martín, V.F.N. da Silva, E. O. Gómez, and A. R. Gonçalves, “Mass balance of pilot-scale pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion followed by alkaline delignification,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 111, pp. 447–452, 2012.

H. Nasution, S. Yuliasmi, T. R. Pardede, W. R. Kunusa, and H. Iyabu, “FTIR , XRD and SEM Analysis of Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) Fibers from Corncorbs in Alkaline Treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. vol 1028, pp. 1-8, 2018.

A. M. Fuadi and H. Sulistya, “Bleaching pulp with hydrogen peroxide,” Reaktor, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 123–128, 2008. (in Indonesian)

K. Chellappan, C. Devi, S. Nasir, Y. Uemura, and M. I. A. Mutalib, “Synthesis and Characterization of Nitrile-functionalized Azepanium Ionic Liquids for the Dissolution of Cellulose,” vol. 148, pp. 385–391, 2016.

M. S. Dayal and J. M. Catchmark, “Mechanical and Structural Property Analysis of Bacterial Cellulose Composites,” Carbohydrate Polymers. vol.44, pp. 447-453. 2016.

A. Pinkert, K. N. Marsh, S. Pang, and M. P. Staiger, “Ionic liquids and their interaction with cellulose,” Chem. Rev., vol. 109, no. 12, pp. 6712–6728, 2009.

A. El Oudiani, Y. Chaabouni, S. Msahli, and F. Sakli, “Crystal transition from cellulose i to cellulose II in NaOH treated Agave americana L. fibre,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 1221–1229, 2011.

G. F. Picheth, C.L.Pirich, M. R. Sierakowski, M.A.Woehl, C. N. Sakakibara, C. F. de Souza, A. A. Martin, R. da Silva, R.A. de Freitas, “Bacterial cellulose in biomedical applications: A review,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol., vol. 104, pp. 97–106, 2017.

S. Srinivasan, R. Jayasree, K. P. Chennazhi, S. V Nair, and R. Jayakumar, “Biocompatible alginate/nano bioactive glass ceramic composite scaffolds for periodontal tissue regeneration,” Carbohydr.Polym., vol.87, no. 1, pp. 274–283, 2012.

R. R. Amaliya, W. Dwi, and R. Putri, “Characterization of Edible Films from Corn Doves by Adding White Turmeric Filtrate as Antibacterial,” Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri.vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 43–53, 2014.(in Indonesian).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um016v3i12019p008

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


View My Stats