Incorporating critical thinking and English as a medium of instruction for elementary school students

Siti Muniroh, Sri Rachmajanti, Ekaning Dewanti Laksmi, Jasmine Nur Fadhillah, Nur Nilam Ayu Saputri


Incorporating critical thinking and English as a medium of instruction for elementary school students

This case study aims to find out how teachers of the International Class Program at an elementary school in Malang incorporated critical thinking (CT) pedagogy in teaching subjects with English as a Medium of Instruction. Eighteen teachers filled in an online questionnaire, and two of them were interviewed. Analysis of one pre-recorded video for English class (lasted for 13 minutes) and one video of Math class delivered through Zoom meeting (lasted for 29 minutes) was done to investigate how teachers triggered students’ thinking in the classroom practice. Also, an analysis of three lesson plans was done to dig further information about teachers’ teaching practices. The findings indicated that the teachers have practical knowledge of CT pedagogy from reading and workshops that were not necessarily focused on CT. Textbooks were mainly used to guide the teachers’ teaching, supported by audio-visual media. Questions primarily were used to trigger students’ higher-order thinking by connecting the texts with the students’ experiences in real life. Despite the implicit policy of CT, the teachers have implemented CT strategies in the International Class Program. Overall, the teachers have played as more knowledgeable others that facilitated the students’ learning to think critically. However, they were not confident whether the teaching material they were developed supported CT pedagogy implementation. Thus, the study findings revealed their need for supervisors to evaluate the content of teaching material and practical guidance to conduct thinking routines for the young learners in the subjects with English as a medium of instruction.

Keywords: pedagogy, critical thinking, elementary school, case study, Indonesia

Menggabungkan berpikir kritis dan bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa pengantar pembelajaran bagi siswa sekolah dasar

Studi kasus ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana guru Program Kelas Internasional di sebuah sekolah dasar di Malang memasukkan pedagogi berpikir kritis dalam mengajar mata pelajaran dengan bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa pengantar pembelajaran. Delapan belas guru mengisi kuesioner online dan dua dari mereka diwawancarai. Analisis satu video yang dipersiapkan guru untuk kelas bahasa Inggris (durasi 13 menit) dan satu video kelas Matematika yang disampaikan melalui Zoom meeting (durasi 29 menit) dilakukan untuk memeriksa bagaimana guru memicu pemikiran siswa di kelas. Analisis ketiga RPP juga dilakukan untuk menggali informasi lebih lanjut tentang praktik mengajar guru. Temuan menunjukkan bahwa guru memiliki pengetahuan praktis tentang pedagogi berpikir kritis yang dipelajari dari membaca dan lokakarya yang belum tentu terfokus pada berpikir kritis. Buku teks lebih banyak digunakan untuk memandu pengajaran guru, didukung dengan penggunaan media audio visual. Pertanyaan banyak digunakan sebagai strategi untuk memicu berpikir tingkat tinggi siswa dengan menghubungkan teks dengan pengalaman siswa dalam kehidupan nyata. Meskipun kebijakan berpikir kritis tersirat, guru telah menerapkan strategi berpikir kritis dalam Program Kelas Internasional. Temuan lain menunjukkan bahwa pola asuh di rumah dan pengalaman siswa tinggal di luar negeri berkontribusi pada keterampilan dan disposisi berpikir kritis siswa. Secara keseluruhan, guru telah berperan sebagai orang lain yang lebih berpengetahuan yang memfasilitasi pembelajaran siswa untuk berpikir kritis. Namun, mereka tidak yakin apakah bahan ajar yang dikembangkan mendukung penerapan pedagogi berpikir kritis. Dengan demikian, temuan mengungkapkan kebutuhan mereka akan pengawas untuk mengevaluasi isi bahan ajar dan bimbingan praktis untuk melakukan rutinitas berpikir untuk pelajar muda dalam mengajar mata pelajaran dengan bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa pengantar.

Kata kunci: pedagogi, berpikir kritis, sekolah dasar, studi kasus, Indonesia

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