Theoretical Validity of Problem Focused-Coping Skill Guideline to Develop Students’ Critical Thinking Skills

Nur Hidayah, Anis Tri Yuliana, Husni Hanafi


Abstract: Critical thinking skills are central for students to become human resources with character. The process of developing thinking skills is currently done contextually within the implementation of learning materials, while critical thinking skills are also needed in everyday life situations. Developmental counselling services through the Problem Focused-Coping Skill (PFCS) strategy are an alternative to foster critical thinking skills through contextual situations in students’ daily lives. Anchored by a research and development model through preliminary studies, product development, and expert validation, the present study unraveled the theoretical validity of PFCS strategy to enhance students’ critical thinking skills. Participants involved were evaluators of product feasibility, namely counselling experts, learning media experts, and prospective users. Analysis of the assessment employed descriptive statistics and Aiken acceptance analysis. The results showed that: (1) there was a need for product development based on literature review and empirical data, (2) the PFCS strategy has been successfully developed in the form of format and content in the developmental service function to build high school students’ critical thinking skills, (3) the assessment of the counselling experts, learning media experts, and users show the validity index in the appropriate and acceptable categories. The theoretical feasibility of the product refers to the conditions, objectives, and processes in the PFCS strategy which accommodates thinking processes in problem solving and information management through students’ critical thinking skills.

Abstrak: Keterampilan berpikir kritis menjadi salah satu keterampilan berpikir yang diperlukan siswa untuk menjadi sumber daya manusia yang berkarakter. Proses penumbuhan keterampilan berpikir saat ini banyak dilakukan secara kontekstual dalam implementasi materi pembelajaran, sedangkan keterampilan berpikir kritis turut dibutuhkan dalam situasi kehidupan sehari-hari. Layanan konseling developmental melalui strategi PFCS menjadi alternatif untuk menumbuhkan keterampilan berpikir kritis melalui situasi kontekstual dalam kehidupan siswa sehari-hari. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berdasarkan pada model penelitian dan pengembangan melalui tahap studi pendahuluan, pengembangan produk dan validasi ahli. Subyek penelitian merupakan penilai kelayakan produk, yakni ahli konseling, ahli media pembelajaran, dan calon pengguna. Analisis data hasil penilaian menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan analisa keberterimaan Aiken. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1) adanya kebutuhan pengembangan produk berdasarkan kajian literatur dan data lapangan; (2) strategi PFCS telah berhasil dikembangkan dalam bentuk format dan isi pada fungsi layanan developmental untuk menumbuhkan keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa sekolah menengah atas; (3) hasil penilaian dari para ahli konseling, ahli media pembelajaran, dan pengguna menunjukkan indeks validitas pada kategori layak dan berterima. Kelayakan teoritis produk ini merujuk pada kondisi, tujuan, dan proses pada strategi PFCS yang mewadahi proses-proses berpikir dalam pemecahan masalah dan pengelolaan informasi melalui keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa.


problem focused coping skill; critical thinking skill; developmental counselling; berpikir kritis; konseling developmental

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