The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Students’ Cognitive Skill to Know Geometric Shapes

Nurul Khotimah, Nur Ika Sari Rakhmawati, Rachma Hasibuan


Abstract: Cognitive skill, the important aspect in early childhood development, consists of three skills such as learning and problem solving, symbolic thinking and logical thinking. The activities in recognizing geometric shapes in children aged 4-5 years are by mentioning geometric shapes, showing geometric shapes, and geometric grouping shapes. The result of observation shows children are difficult to distinguish between square and rectangular shapes when asked. Thus, educational media to overcome these problems as well as to meet the industrial revolution 4.0 challenge is so needed. This study aims to determine the effect of CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) on children aged 4-5 years in recognizing geometric shapes. This is quantitative descriptive research using a quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group design. The population used were 75 children aged 4-5 years. Data were collected using observation and documentation. The assessment indicators used are to mention geometric shapes, show geometric shapes, connect 2- and 3-dimensional geometry shapes (surrounding objects), and group surrounding objects. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in recognizing geometric shapes was used 3 times. The average score before treatment was 10.77, while after treatment was12.66. Through the Mann-U Whitney test, the hypothesis was sig = 0,000 < alpha (0.05) meaning that Ho was rejected and Ha was accepted. Therefore, it can be concluded that CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) is an effective media to recognize geometric shapes in children aged 4-5 years.



computer-assisted instruction; cognitive skill; geometric shapes; early childhood education

Full Text:



Abouserie, R., Moss, D., & Barasi, S. (1992). Cognitive style, gender, attitude toward computer-assisted learning and academic achievement. Educ. Stud., 18(2), 151–160.

Apperson, J. M., Laws, E. L., & Scepansky, J. A. (2006). The impact of presentation graphics on students’ experience in the classroom. Comput. Educ., 47(1), 116–126.

Aslan, D., & Arnas, Y. A. (2007). Three-to six-year-old children’s recognition of geometric shapes. Int. J. Early Years Educ., 15(1), 83–104.

Barrow, L., Markman, L., & Rouse, C. E. (2009). Technology’s edge: The educational benefits of computer-aided instruction. Am. Econ. J. Econ. Policy, 1(1), 52–74.

Battista, M. T. (2002). Learning geometry in a dynamic computer environment. Teach. Child. Math., 8(6), 333–340.

Bryant, J. A. (2011). Children and the media: a service-learning approach. Integrating Serv.-Learn. Univ. Classr., 53(1), 1-9.

Bussi, M. G. B., & Baccaglini-Frank, A. (2015). Geometry in early years: sowing seeds for a mathematical definition of squares and rectangles. ZDM, 47(3), 391–405.

Chambers, B., Cheung, A. C., Madden, N. A., Slavin, R. E., & Gifford, R. (2006). Achievement effects of embedded multimedia in a success for all reading program. J. Educ. Psychol., 98(1), 232-240.

Clements, D. H., Swaminathan, S., Hannibal, M. A. Z., & Sarama, J. (1999). Young children’s concepts of shape. J. Res. Math. Educ., 30, 192–212.

Cotton, K. (2008). Computer-assisted instruction. Encycl. Spec. Educ., 514–520.

Dalton, D. W., Hannafin, M. J., & Hooper, S. (1989). Effects of individual and cooperative computer-assisted instruction on student performance and attitudes. Educ. Technol. Res. Dev., 37(2), 15–24.

Davis, E. E., Pitchford, N. J., & Limback, E. (2011). The interrelation between cognitive and motor development in typically developing children aged 4–11 years is underpinned by visual processing and fine manual control. Br. J. Psychol., 102(3), 569–584.

Elia, I., & Gagatsis, A. (2003). Young children’s understanding of geometric shapes: The role of geometric models. Eur. Early Child. Educ. Res. J., 11(2), 43–61.

Gambari, I. A., Ezenwa, V. I., & Anyanwu, R. C. (2014). Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer-Assisted Instructional Packages on Solid Geometry Achievement. Contemp. Educ. Technol., 5(2),110–120.

Giessen, H. W. (2015). Media-based learning methodology: Stories, games, and emotions. International Handbook of E-Learning, 2, 71–82.

Gönen, S., Kocakaya, S., & Inan, C. (2006). The Effect of the Computer Assisted Teaching and 7e Model of the Constructivist Learning Methods on the Achievements and Attitudes of High School Students. Turk. Online J. Educ. Technol.-TOJET, 5(4), 82–88.

Goodwin, M. H. (1995). Co-construction in girls’ hopscotch. Res. Lang. Soc. Interact., 28(3), 261–281.

Gunawan, I. (2018). The Implementation of Lesson Study Based Learning Management and the Effect toward Students’ Activeness in Lecturing. JPP (Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran), 24(2), 51-63.

Gürbüz, R., & Birgin, O. (2012). The effect of computer-assisted teaching on remedying misconceptions: The case of the subject ‘probability. Comput. Educ., 58(3), 931–941.

Guven, B., & Baki, A. (2010). Characterizing student mathematics teachers’ levels of understanding in spherical geometry. Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol., 41(8), 991–1013.

Hardika, Aisyah, E. N., & Gunawan, I. (2018). Facilitative Learning to Improve Student Learning Creativity. 3rd International Conference on Educational Management and Administration (CoEMA 2018). Atlantis Press.

Hia, E. P. D., Prestiadi, D., Maghfiroh, S. I., & Oktaviani, V. M. (2020). The Use of Information and Communication Technology Through Website and Social Media as Public Relations Information Media. In 2nd Early Childhood and Primary Childhood Education (ECPE 2020) (pp. 269-274). Atlantis Press.

Kingsley, K. V., & Boone, R. (2008). Effects of multimedia software on achievement of middle school students in an American history class. J. Res. Technol. Educ., 41(2), 203–221.

Kirkorian, H. L., Wartella, E. A., & Anderson, D. R. (2008). Media and young children’s learning. Future Child., 18(1), 39–61.

Kusumaningrum, D. E., Sumarsono, R. B., & Gunawan, I. (2018). Empowering the Principal of Boarding House-Based Junior High School in East Java Province Indonesia. In 3rd International Conference on Educational Management and Administration (CoEMA 2018). Atlantis Press.

Lee, Y., & Vail, C. O. (2004). Computer-based reading instruction for young children with disabilities. J. Spec. Educ. Technol., 20(1), 5–18.

Lucht, M., Domagk, S., & Mohring, M. (2010). Exer-learning games: Transferring Hopscotch from the schoolyard to the classroom. IFIP International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Theory and Practice, 25–34.

Ogochukwu, N. V. (2010). Enhancing students’ interest in mathematics via multimedia presentation,” Afr. J. Math. Comput. Sci. Res., 3(7), 107–113.

Pambudi, B. A., & Gunawan, I. (2019). Instructional Leadership as an Effort to Increase Teacher Professionalism in the Industrial Revolution Era 4.0. In the 4th International Conference on Education and Management (COEMA 2019). Atlantis Press.

Pennington, R. C. (2010). Computer-assisted instruction for teaching academic skills to students with autism spectrum disorders: A review of literature. Focus Autism Dev. Disabil., 25(4), 239–248.

Ramdoss, S., Machalicek, W., Rispoli, M., Mulloy, A., Lang, R., & O’Reilly, M. (2012). Computer-based interventions to improve social and emotional skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review,” Dev. Neurorehabilitation, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 119–135.

Romanelli, F., Bird, E., & Ryan, M. (2009). Learning styles: a review of theory, application, and best practices. Am. J. Pharm. Educ., 73, 1-9.

Soe, K., Koki, S., & Chang, J. M. (2000). Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. Atlantis Press.

Sohn, M. H., & Carlson, R. A. (2003). Implicit temporal tuning of working memory strategy during cognitive skill acquisition. Am. J. Psychol., 116(2), 239–256.

Suminah, Gunawan, I., & Murdiyah, S. (2018). Peningkatan Hasil Belajar dan Motivasi Belajar Siswa melalui Pendekatan Behavior Modification. Ilmu Pendidikan: Jurnal Kajian Teori dan Praktik Kependidikan, 3(2), 221-230.

Tomaz, V. S., & David, M. M. (2011). Classroom activity promoting students’ learning about the use of drawings in geometry. 35th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Developing Mathematical Thinking.

Watan, S. 2018. Exploring the relationship between teachers’ instructional and students’ geometrical thinking levels based on van Hiele theory. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 109, 21-22.

Watan, S., & Sugiman. (2018). The Van Hiele theory and realistic mathematics education: As teachers’ instruction for teaching geometry. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2075.

Weiss, I., Kramarski, B., & Talis, S. (2006). Effects of multimedia environments on kindergarten children’s mathematical achievements and style of learning. Educ. Media Int., 43(1), 3–17.

Willstedt-Svensson, U., Löfqvist, A., Almqvist, B., & Sahlén, B. (2004). Is age at implant the only factor that counts? The influence of working memory on lexical and grammatical development in children with cochlear implants. Int. J. Audiol., 43(9), 506–515.

Yusuf, M. O., & Afolabi, A. O. (2010). Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students’ Performance in Biology. Turk. Online J. Educ. Technol. TOJET, 9(1), 62–69.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Nurul Khotimah


Ilmu Pendidikan: Jurnal Kajian Teori dan Praktik Kependidikan is indexed by:



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Web Analytics Made Easy - StatCounter IP Stats