Optimum Conditions for EOR Using Nanofluids Subjected to EM Waves

Muhammad Kashif, Poppy Puspitasari


Today‟s major challenge for oil industry is to improve the oil recovery from the reservoir. Various enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods have been applied in the field and the steam injection is one of the most favourable methods. The deep reservoir will result in failure of this method due to excessive heat dissipation. In this situation, generating and injecting steam may be uneconomical due to the tremendous reduction of the recovery. Some methods using nanotechnology have been introduced and elaborated. However, we propose the electromagnetic (EM) method as an alternative due to its long range transmission of the transverse waves. These EM waves, coupled with some nanoparticles (NP), can modify the surface energy. We propose an optimum conditions based on some parameters namely, frequency, flux density, space charge density and skin depth, employing Maxwell and Helmholtz equations which interact with some magnetic and dielectric nanoparticles. A newly-designed EM antenna with a very high flux density is the model for this specific purpose. The electrical energy from the antenna transfers the waves to the dielectric and resistive nanoparticles, which is then transferred to the fluid with high capillary force. This results in lower surface tension which reduces the oil viscosity. In order to investigate the transport phenomena of the nanoparticles in porous medium, we applied Darcy‟s law. Our preliminary study for scale model simulations showed that at a frequency of 0.125Hz, the electric field of the curve antenna with magnetic feeders was 4280% higher compared to the one without magnetic feeders,At a frequency of 0.125Hz, the magnetic field of the curve antenna with magnetic feeders was 3677% higher in comparison with the one without magnetic feeders. With the increasing frequency from 0.125Hz to 9Hz, the electric field and magnetic field of the antenna with feeders decreased by 99%. The permeability and porosity of glass beads packed column was 30.58mD and 25.87% respectively. It was observed that the cumulative recovery of oil reached 21.11% by using ZnO nanofluid with electromagnetic waves, 17.23% by using ZnO nanofluid without electromagnetic waves, 32.59% by using iron oxide nanofluid with electromagnetic waves, and 29.68% by using iron oxide nanofluid without electromagnetic waves. In summary, the use of ZnO and iron oxide nanoparticles as nanofluids with electromagnetic waves is considered the most effective to use in enhanced oil recovery.


EOR, Nano Fluid, EM Waves

Full Text:



Morrow, N.R.:1990 a.“Introduction To Interfacial Phenomena In Oil Recovery” “Interfacial Phenomena In Petroleum Recovery” ed.morrow N.R.,Marcel Dekker Inc., New York,USA

Thomas, S.:2005.”Chemical EOR – The past, does it have a future?”,SPE Distinguished Lecture Series, SPE108829

R. L. Mathis: “Reservoir Geology of the Denver Unit– Wasson San Andres Field, Gaines and Yoakum Counties, Texas,” Permian Basin SEPM Publication 86-26, 1986, 43-47

A.J.P.Fletcher,SPE,Parr system Pty.Ltd.,and J.P.Davis,University of Bristol “how EOR can be transformed by nanotechnology”

Lake,L., Schmidt,R. and Venuto,P.:1992 ”A niche for enhanced oil recovery in the 1990;s ”Oilfield review, 55-61

McCarthy,J.F., and Zachara,J.M., ”Subsurface Transport of Contaminants“, Environmental Since and Technology, Vol.23,No.5,496-502,1989)

H.Yu,SPE,C.Kotsmar,K.Y.Yoon.Ingram,K.P.Johnston,S L.Bryan,and C.Huh, “Transport and retention of Aqueus Dispersions of Paramagnetic Nanoparticles in Reservoir Rocks”

Philipse, A.P.; Van Bruggen, M. P.B.; Pathmamanoharan, C. Magnetic silica dispersions: preparation and stability of surface-modifiedsilica particles with a magnetic core. Langmuir 1994, 10, 92–99.

Ditsch, A.; Laibinis, P. E.; Wang, D. I. C.; Hatton, T.A.

Controlled Clustering and Enhanced Stability of Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles. Langmuir 2005, 21 (13), 6006–6018.

Lan, Q.; Liu, C.; Yang, F.; Liu, S.; Xu, J.; Sun, D. Synthesis of bilayer oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their application in pH responsive pickering emulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2007, 310, 260–269

Campelj, S.; Makovec, D.; Drofenik, M. Preparation and properties of water-based magnetic fluids. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2008, 20, 204101–204105.

Sahoo, Y.; Goodarzi, A.; Swihart, M. T.; Ohulchanskyy, T. Y.; Kaur, N.; Furlani, E. P.; Prasad, P. N. Aqueous ferrofluid of magnetite nanoparticles: fluorescence labeling and magnetophoretic control. J. Phys. Chem. B2005, 109, 3879–3885.

Lyon, J. L.; Fleming, D. A.; Stone, M. B.; Schiffer, P.; Williams, M. E. Synthesis of Fe oxide core/ Au shell nanoparticles by iterative hydroxylamine seeding. Nano Lett. 2004, 4, 719–723.

Hui, C.; Shen, C.; Yang, T.; Bao, L.; Tian, J.; Ding, H.; Li, C.; Gao, H.-J. Large-scale Fe3O4 nanoparticles soluble in water synthesized by a facile method. J. Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112, 11336– 11339.

Thompson, J.,Vasuez, A.,Hill, J.M., and Pereira–Almao,P.,” The synthesis and Evaluation of Up-scalable Molybdenum based Ultra Dispersed Catalysts : Effect of Temperature on Particle size” Cata.Lett.,123,16-23(2008)

Bresme, F., and Oettel, M.,” Nanoparticles at Fluid Interfaces”,J.of Physics-ondensed Matter,19 (41),(2007).

Binks, B.P., and Horozov, T.S.,”Colloidal Particles at Liquid Interfaces:An Introduction’,in Colloidal Particles at Liquid Interfaces,Chapt.1Binks.B.P.,and Horozov,T.S.,eds.,1-74, Cambridge Univ.press (2006).

Fernandez-Toledano, J.C., Monacho-Jorda,A., Martinez- lopez,F.,and Hidaglo-Alvarez,R., “Theory for interactions between Particles in Monolayer“ in Colloidal Particles at Liquid Interfaces Binks.B.P.,and Horozov,T.S.,eds., 303-301, Cambridge Univ.press (2006).

Elena Rodriguez, Matthew R. Roberts, Haiyang Yu, Chun Huh, and Steven L .Bryant, “Enhanced Migration of Surface-Treated Nanoparticles in Sedimentary Rocks” Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 4–7 October 2009.

B.A. Suleimanov , F.S. Ismailov, E.F. Veliyev Oil Gas Scientific Research Project Institute, SOCAR, Azerbaijan“Nanofluid for enhanced oil recovery” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 78 (2011) 431–437.

R.Mittet and T.S. Pettersen,"Shaping optimal transmitter waveforms for marine CSEM surveys"Geophysics,Vol.73, May-June 2008.

L.Loseth, H.Pedersen, T.S Pettersen, S.Ellingsrud, & T.Eidesmo, "A scaled experiment for the verification of the SeaBed Logging method". Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 64, pp.47-55 2008.

T.A.Milligan, "Modern antenna design ",Second Edition, IEEE Press 2005.

M.N. Akhtar, N. Yahya, N.Nasir, “Novel EM antenna based on Y3Fe5O12 magnetic feeders for improved MVO”, Saudi International Electronics, Communications and Photonics Conference, Saudi Arab, (2011).

N. Nasir, N. Yahya, M. Kashif, H. Daud, M. N. Akhter, H. M. Zaid, A. Shafie, L. C.Teng J. Nanosci. Nanotechno, 11(2011)2551-2554.

N. Yahya, R.M.A. Habashi, Krzysztof Koziol, R. Dunin- Borkowski, M.N. Akhtar, M.

Kashif and M. Hashim, J. Nanosci. Nanotechno, 11(2011)2652-2656.

A. Shaw, A.I. AlShamma’, S.R. Wylie and D. Toal ," Experimental Investigations of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Seawater"Proceedings of the 36th European Microwave Conference September 2006, Manchester U.K.

M. N. Akhtar, N. Yahya, K. Koziol, and N. Nasir, “Synthesis and characterizations of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4- MWCNTs composites for their application in sea bed logging,” Ceramics International, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 3237-3245, 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um016v1i12017p015


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science and Technology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats