Makna-makna gramatikal konstruksi verba denominatif dalam bahasa Indonesia

Danang Satria Nugraha


Grammatical meanings of denominal verbs construction in Indonesian

New words are constantly constructed as language evolves. Through morphological afixation, new words in Indonesian (bI) such as berfirman, menggembalakan, and direncanakan are classified as denominal verbs (VDn). VDn construction is the focus of this study. It aimed to describe the grammatical meanings of VDn construction in bI. Data of the study include the VDn constructions in bI. The data sources were (a) written bI in various texts and (b) the two online corpora containing bI data, and Data were collected using observation and semi-corpus methods. During the analysis, referential match technique was used to identify the grammatical meanings of each VDn construction. Results are presented in a form of rules, tables, and descriptions. The study found that there are three main categories of grammatical meanings of VDn construction in bI, namely ‘action’, ‘process’, and ‘state’. First, the ‘action’ VDn includes ‘instrumental’, ‘benefactive’, ‘reciprocal’, and ‘repetitive.’ Second, the ‘process’ VDn consists of ‘locative’, ‘resultive’, and ‘reflective.’ Third, the ‘state’ VDn consists of ‘stative’ and ‘substantive.’ Further studies may pay attention on other construction of derived verbs, such as deadjectival verbs that can be analyzed and described using Semantic theories

Keywords: grammatical meanings, denominal verb, bahasa Indonesia, morphological affixation, verb construction

Makna-makna gramatikal konstruksi verba denominatif dalam bahasa Indonesia

Kata-kata baru dibentuk seturut dengan perkembangan bahasa. Dengan afiksasi, kata-kata baru seperti berfirman, menggembalakan, dan direncanakan, yang terhimpun dalam klasifikasi verba denominatif (VDn) pada bahasa Indonesia (bI) diciptakan untuk merepresentasikan berbagai makna gramatikal. Fenomena konstruksi VDn tersebut merupakan objek kajian ini. Secara khusus, kajian ini disusun untuk mengidentifikasi dan mendeskripsikan makna-makna gramatikal konstruksi VDn dalam bI. Data kajian berwujud konstruksi VDn dalam bI. Sumber data berupa (a) wacana tulisan berbahasa Indonesia, dan (b) laman penyedia rekaman penggunaan bI dengan identitas dan Data dikumpulkan menggunakan metode simak/observasi dan metode semi-korpus. Untuk tahap analisis, teknik padan referensial digunakan. Hasil analisis disajikan dalam bentuk kaidah, tabel, dan uraian deskripsi. Berdasarkan analisis, dapat dinyatakan bahwa sekurang-kurangnya terdapat tiga kategori utama makna gramatikal konstruksi VDn, yaitu ‘aksi’, ‘proses’, dan ‘keadaan’. Pertama, makna ‘aksi’ konstruksi VDn meliputi ‘instrumental’, ‘benefaktif’, ‘resiprokal’, dan ‘repetitif’. Kedua, makna ‘proses’ konstruksi VDn meliputi ‘lokatif’, ‘resultatif’, dan ‘reflektif.’ Ketiga, makna ‘keadaan’ konstruksi VDn meliputi ‘statif’ dan ‘substantif.’ Untuk kajian selanjutnya, konstruksi verba turunan yang lainnya seperti verba deajektival dapat dianalisis dan dideskripsikan berdasarkan ancangan teoretis Semantik

Kata kunci: makna gramatikal, verba denominatif, bahasa Indonesia, afiksasi morfologis, konstruksi verba

Full Text:



Aikhenvald, A. Y., & Dixon, R. M. W. (2007). Serial verb constructions: A cross linguistic typology. Oxford University Press.

Baker, M. C. (2004). Lexical categories: Verbs, nouns and adjectives. Cambridge University Press.

Beavers, J., Ponvert, E., & Wechsler, S. (2008). Possession of a controlled substantive: Light ‘have’ and other verbs of possession. SALT XVIII, 108–125.

Bedny, M., & Caramazza, A. (2011). Perception, action, and word meanings in the human brain: The case from action verbs. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1224, 81–95.

Bedny, M., Caramazza, A., Grossman, E., Pascual-Leone, A., & Saxe, R. (2008). Concepts are more than percepts: The case of action verbs. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(44), 11347–11353.

Bi, Y., Han, Z., Shu, H., & Caramazza, A. (2007). Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and the animate/inanimate effect. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 24(5), 485–504.

Binnick, R. I. (Ed.). (2012). The Oxford handbook of tense and aspect. Oxford University Press.

Boas, H. C. (2005). Determining the productivity of resultatives: A reply to Goldberg and Jackendoff. Language, 81(2), 448–464.

Bondaruk, A., & Rozwadowska, B. (2018). Stative and eventive passives of subject experiencer verbs in Polish. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 54(4), 437–467.

Bosse, S., & Bruening, B. (2011). Benefactive versus experiencer datives. Proceedings of the 28th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 69–77.

Broderick, G. (2015). Latin and Celtic: The substantive verb. Glotta, 91, 3–14.

Chaer, A. (2012). Linguistik umum edisi revisi. Penerbit Rineka Cipta.

Chafe, W. L. (1970). Meaning and the structure of language. Chicago University Press.

Chen, J. (2017). When transparency doesn’t mean ease: Learning the meaning of resultative verb compounds in Mandarin Chinese. J. Child Lang, 44, 695–718.

Colleman, T., de Clerck, B., & Devos, M. (2010). Prepositional dative constructions in English and Dutch: A contrastive semantic analysis. Neuphilogische Mitteilungen, 111(2), 23.

Croft, W. (2009). Constructions and generalizations. Cognitive Linguistics, 20(1), 157–165. 10.1515/COGL.2009.009

Croft, W. (2012). Verbs: Aspect and causal structure. Oxford University Press.

Crystal, D. (2008). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics sixth edition. Blackwell Publishing.

Csirmaz, A., & Slade, B. (2016). Result states and repetitive adverbs. Acta Linguistica Hungarica, 63(4), 443–455.

Dixon, R. M. W. (2008). Deriving verbs in English. Language Sciences, 30, 31–52.

Dixon, R. M. W. (2010). Basic linguistic theory: Grammatical topics. Oxford University Press.

Dixon, R. M. W., & Aikhenvald, A. Y. (Eds.). (2000). Changing valency: Case studies in transitivity. Cambridge University Press.

Dixon, R. M. W., & Aikhenvald, A. Y. (2002). Word: A cross-linguistic typology. Cambridge University Press.

Druks, J. (2002). Verbs and nouns: A review of the literature. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 15, 289–315.

Ernst, T. (2016). Modification of stative predicates. Language, 92(2), 237–274.

Evans, N., Levinson, S. C., Enfield, N. J., Gaby, A., & Majid, A. (2004). Reciprocal constructions and situation type. Field Manual, 9, 25–30.

Franco, L., & Manzini, M. R. (2017). Instrumental prepositions and case: Contexts of occurrence and alternations with datives. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, 2(8), 1–37.

Gaume, B., Duvignau, K., Gaskuet, O., & Gineste, M. (2002). Forms of meaning, meaning of forms. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 14, 61–74. 10.1080/09528130210162262

Gehrke, B. (2011). Stative passives and event kinds. Proceedings of Sinn & Bedeutung 15, 241–257.

Gerner, M. (2014). Verb Classifiers in East Asia. Functions of language, 21(3), 267–296. 10.1075/fol.21.3.01ger

Giorgolo, G., Asudeh, A., & Toivonen, I. (2014). Meaning and valency. Proceedings of the LFG14 Conference. The LFG14 Conference.

Goddard, C., & Wierzbicka, A. (Eds.). (2002). Meaning and universal grammar. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Goldberg, A. E., & Jackendoff, R. (2004). The English resultative as a family of constructions. Language, 80(3), 532–568.

Graumann, A. (2004). Dynamic and static patterns in language: Instrumental verbs unfolded. Estudios de Lingüistica: El Yerbo, 233–243.

Hare, M., McRae, K., & Jeffrey, L. E. (2003). Sense and structure: Meaning as a determinant of verb subcategorization preferences. Journal of Memory and Language, 48, 281–303.

Harley, H. (2008). On causative construction. In S. Miyagawa (Ed.), The Oxford handbooks of Japanese linguistics. Oxford University Press.

Jackson, E. M. (2005). Resultatives, derived statives, and lexical semantic structure. University of California.

Kemmerer, D., & Gonzalez-Castillo, J. (2010). The Two-Level Theory of verb meaning: An approach to integrating the semantics of action with the mirror neuron system. Brain & Language, 112, 54–76.

Koontz-Garboden, A. (2011a). The lexical semantics of derived statives. Linguist and Philos, 1–40. 10.1007/s10988-011-9082-9

Koontz-Garboden, A. (2011b). The roots of change of state verbs. Approaches to the Lexicon (Roots III).

Kouwenberg, N. J. C. (2000). Nouns as verbs: The verbal nature of the Akkadian stative. Orientalia, 69(1), 21–71.

Kratzer, A. (2000). Building statives. Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on Aspect, 385–399.

Kridalaksana, H. (2008). Kamus linguistik. PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Levinson, L. (2010). Arguments for pseudo-resultative predicates. Nat Lang Linguist Theory, 28, 135–182. 10.1007/s11049-010-9089-x

Maienborn, C., & Wollstein, A. (2005). Event arguments: Foundations and applications. Max Niemeyer Verlag.

Maisak, T., & Merdanova, S. (2011). Repetitive prefix in Agul and its areal/genetic background. Institute of Linguistics, RAS, Moscow.

Marten, L., & Kula, N. C. (2014). Benefactive and substitutive applicatives in Bemba. JALL, 35(1), 1–44. 10.1515/jall-2014-000

Mondorf, B. (2010). Variation and change in English resultative constructions. 22(3), 397–421. 10.1017/S0954394510000165

Moravcsik, E. A. (2013). Introducing language typology. Cambridge University Press.

Nedjalkov, V. P. (Ed.). (2007). Reciprocal constructions. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Neeleman, A., & Van De Koot, H. (2002). Bare resultatives. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics, 6, 1–52.

Nugraha, A. D. S. (2017a). Afiks-afiks derivasional dan tipe-tipe nomina dalam konstruksi verba denominatif bahasa Indonesia. Bahasa dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni dan Pengajarannya, 45(1), 013–026.

Nugraha, A. D. S. (2017b). Ketransitifan verba denominatif dalam konstruksi kalimat bahasa Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmiah Kebudayaan SINTESIS, 11(2), 78–86.

Nugraha, D. S., & Baryadi, I. P. (2019). Perbandingan fitur morfologis antara verba denominatif dalam bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris. Sirok Bastra, 7(2), 107–117.

Parker, F., & Riley, K. (2014). Linguistics for non-linguists 5th edition. Pearson Education.

Pateda, M. 2001. Semantik leksikal edisi kedua. Penerbit Rineka Cipta.

Poedjosoedarmo, S. (2001). Teori tatabahasa universal. In Kumpulan Makalah dan Jurnal Prof. Soepomo Poedjosoedarmo. FIB Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Pratiwi, D. P. E., Arka, I. W., & Shiohara, A. (2008). On the situated socio-cultural meaning of benefactives in Balinese. Linguistik Indonesia, 36(2), 117–128.

Ramchand, G. C. (2008). Verb meaning and the lexicon: A first phase syntax. Cambridge University Press.

Rissman, L. (2011). Instrumental with and use: Modality and implicature. Proceedings of SALT 21, 532–551.

Rissman, L., & Rawlins, K. (2017). Ingredients of instrumental meaning. Journal of Semantics, 34, 507–537. 10.1093/jos/ffx003

Rothmayr, A. (2009). The structure of stative verbs. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Siloni, T. 2012. Reciprocal verbs and symmetry. Nat Lang Linguist Theory, 30, 261–320. 10.1007/s11049-011-9144-2

Singh, R. (2018). Derivational grammar model and basket verb: A novel approach to the inflectional phrase in the generative grammar and cognitive processing. English Linguistics Research, 7(2), 9.

Sneddon, J. N., Adelaar, A., Djenar, D. N., & Ewing, M. C. (1996). Indonesian: A comprehensive grammar 2nd edition. Routledge.

Son, M., & Cole, P. (2008). An event-based account of -kan constructions in standard Indonesian. Language, 84(1), 120–160.

Sumarsono, S. (2004). Teori motivasi pembentukan kata dari Stephen Ullmann. In K. E. Sukamto (Ed.), Menabur benih, menuai kasih: Persembahan karya bahasa, sosial, dan budaya untuk Anton M. Moeliono pada ulang tahunnya yang ke-75 (pp. 110–117). Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Talmy, L. (2016). Properties of main verbs. Cognitive Semantics, 2, 133–163. 10.1163/23526416-00202001

Trondhjem, N. B. (2012). Repetitive, iterative and habitual aspectual affixes in West Greenlandic. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 44(1), 64–76.

Vikner, C., & Jensen, P. A. (2002). A semantic analysis of the English genitive. Interaction of lexical and formal semantics. Studia Linguistica, 56(2), 191–226.

Wijana, I. D. P. (1995). Error analysis of Monash University post graduate student’ essay writing. Faculty of Letters, Gadjah Mada University.

Wijana, I. D. P. (2010). Pengantar semantik bahasa Indonesia. Prodi S2 Linguistik UGM & Pustaka Pelajar.

Wijana, I. D. P. (2016). Metode linguistik: Identifikasi satuan-satuan lingual. A Com Press.

Winter, Y. (2018). Symmetric predicates and the semantics of reciprocal alternations. Semantics and Pragmatics, 11(1), 1–48. 11.1.

Yuan, S., Fisher, C., & Snedeker, J. (2012). Counting the nouns: Simple structural cues to verb meaning. Child Development, 83(4), 1382–1399.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Bahasa dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, dan Pengajarannya is licensed under
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
AnalyticsView My Stats
Based on the Official Letter from the Director General of Higher Education, Research, and Technology, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology No 158/E/KPT/2021, dated December 27, 2021, Bahasa dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni dan Pengajarannya is granted RANK 2 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC ACCREDITATION PERIOD I YEAR 2021. This rating status is valid for 5 (five) years up to Vol 53, No 1, 2025.

Dear Sir/Madam

We appreciate your continued confidence and trust in Bahasa dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, dan Pengajarannya (JBS). In order to enhance the service, readability, and quality of JBS publications, we will be transitioning to a new website,, in collaboration with Digital Commons (Elsevier) starting in July 2024.


Yusuf Hanafi
(Editor in chief)

Editorial Office:
Gedung D16 Lantai 2 Fakultas Sastra UM Jl. Semarang 5 Kota Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia 65145

Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
JPtpp is licensed under