College Students' Perceptions of an Automated Writing Evaluation as a Supplementary Feedback Tool in a Writing Class

Meilisa Sindy Astika Ariyanto, Nur Mukminatien, Sintha Tresnadewi


Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE) programs have emerged as the latest trend in EFL writing classes. AWE programs act as a supplementary to teacher feedback and offer automated suggestions and corrections to students' linguistic errors such as grammar, vocabulary, or mechanics. As there is a need for better recognition of different AWE brands utilized for different levels of students, this research sheds light on identifying six university students’ views of an AWE program, namely ProWritingAid (PWA). The six students are categorized as having high or low writing achievement. This descriptive study delineates the students’ perceptions qualitatively. A semi-structured interview was used to collect the data. The findings suggest the students’ positive views of PWA because it could make class time more effective; it had useful feedback on grammar, vocabulary choices, and mechanics; and it built students‘ self-confidence over their compositions. In addition, for different reasons, the students engaged differently with PWA to enhance their drafts, e.g. using PWA only for the first drafts or for the first and final drafts. Finally, despite of the students’ constructive views on PWA, there was a risk that students only engaged superficially with the program by hitting the correction directly.


Automated Writing Evaluation; ProWritingAid; students’ perception; writing; feedback

Full Text:



Aken, A. (2017). An Evaluation of Assessment-Oriented Computer-Based Text Analysis Paradigms. Higher Education Research. 2(4), 111–116.

Ariyanto, M., Mukminatien, N., & Tresnadewi, S. (2019). Students ’ and Teacher ’ s Perceptions towards the Implementation of ProWritingAid and Teacher Feedback. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, Dan Pengembangan, 4(10), 1353–1363.

Bakla, A. (2020). A mixed-methods study of feedback modes in EFL writing. Language Learning and Technology, 24(1), 107–128.

Budianto, S., Mukminatien, N., & Adnan Latief, M. (2017). The Superiority of Written Corrective Feedback Outcome on EFL Writing at Different Proficiency Levels. International Journal of English and Education, 6(3), 40–53.

Chen, C. F. E., & Cheng, W. Y. E. (2008). Beyond the design of automated writing evaluation: Pedagogical practices and perceived learning effectiveness in efl writing classes. Language Learning and Technology, 12(2), 94–112.

Crusan, D. (2015). And then a Miracle Occurs: The Use of Computers to Assess Student Writing. International Journal of TESOL and Learning, 4(1), 20–32.

Dikli, S., & Bleyle, S. (2014). Automated Essay Scoring feedback for second language writers: How does it compare to instructor feedback? Assessing Writing, 22, 1–17.

Elena Cotos. (2010). Automated Writing Evaluation for non-native speaker English academic writing : The case of IADE and its formative feedback. Doctoral dissertation, Digital repositor, Iowa State University. Retrieved from

Fati, M. (2013). The effect of English writing proficiency in the type and amount of errors produced by Moroccan EFL students . International Journal of Education and Research, 1(9), 1–12.

Ferguson, P. (2011). Student perceptions of quality feedback in teacher education. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 36(1), 51–62.

Gan, Z., Nang, H., & Mu, K. (2018). Trainee teachers’ experiences of classroom feedback practices and their motivation to learn. Journal of Education for Teaching, 44(4), 505–510.

Glover, C., & Brown, E. (2006). Written Feedback for Students: too much, too detailed or too incomprehensible to be effective? Bioscience Education, 7(1), 1–16.

He, H. (2016). A survey of EFL college learners’ perceptions of an on-line writing program. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 11(4), 11–15.

Hegelheimer, V., Dursun, A., & Li, Z. (2016). Automated writing evaluation in language teaching: Theory, development, and application. CALICO Journal, 33ar(1), I–v.

Hockly, N. (2019). Automated writing evaluation. ELT Journal, 73(1), 82–88.

Huang, S., & Renandya, W. A. (2018). Exploring the integration of automated feedback among lower-proficiency EFL learners. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 14(1), 15–26.

Kellogg, R. T., Whiteford, A. P., & Quinlan, T. (2010). Does automated feedback help students learn to write? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 42(2), 173–196.

Lee, I. (2019). Teacher written corrective feedback: Less is more. Language Teaching, 52(4), 524–536.

Li, J., & De Luca, R. (2014). Review of assessment feedback. Studies in Higher Education, 39(2), 378–393.

Liao, H. C. (2016). Using automated writing evaluation to reduce grammar errors in writing. ELT Journal, 70(3), 308–319.

Lu, X. (2019). An Empirical Study on the Artificial Intelligence Writing Evaluation System in China CET. Big Data, 7(2), 121–129.

Montgomery, J. L., & Baker, W. (2007). Teacher-written feedback: Student perceptions, teacher self-assessment, and actual teacher performance. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16(2), 82–99.

Muchemwa, S., Amimo, C., & Allida, V. (2019). Analysis of Teacher-written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Writing Pedagogy in Secondary Schools, Bulilima, Zimbabwe. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 31(3), 1–13.

Nova, M., & Lukmana, I. (2018). The Detected and Undetected Errors in Automated Writing Evaluation Program ’ S Result. Proceedings of the 2nd English Language and Literature International Conference (ELLiC), 5 May 2018,Semarang, Indonesia, (pp 2579-7263). Retrieved from

Parra, G. L., & Calero, S. X. (2019). Automated writing evaluation tools in the improvement of the writing skill. International Journal of Instruction, 12(2), 209–226.

Stevenson, M., & Phakiti, A. (2014). The effects of computer-generated feedback on the quality of writing. Assessing Writing, 19, 51–65.

Vaismoradi, M., Turunen, H., & Bondas, T. (2013). Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nursing and Health Sciences, 15(3), 398–405.

Wang, P.-L. (2015). Effects of an automated writing evaluation program: Student experiences and perceptions. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 12(1), 79–100.

Wang, S., & Li, R. (2019). An Empirical Study on the Impact of an Automated Writing Assessment on Chinese College Students’ English Writing Proficiency. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 7(5), 218.

Wang, Y. J., Shang, H. F., & Briody, P. (2013). Exploring the impact of using automated writing evaluation in English as a foreign language university students’ writing. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26(3), 234–257.

Warschauer, M., & Grimes, D. (2008). Automated Writing Assessment in the Classroom. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 3(1), 22–36.

Warschauer, M., & Ware, P. (2006). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda. Language Teaching Research, 10(2), 157–180.

Weigle, S. C. (2011). Validation of Automated Scores of TOEFL iBT® Tasks against Nontest Indicators of Writing Ability. TOEFL iBT® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-15. ETS Research Report RR-11-24. ETS Research Report Series, June, (pp1–73). Retrieved from

Wilson, J., & Czik, A. (2016). Automated essay evaluation software in English Language Arts classrooms: Effects on teacher feedback, student motivation, and writing quality. Computers and Education, 100, 94–109.

Yinghui, H., & Dan, Z. (2015). A Comparative Study of Teacher Feedback and Automated Essay Scoring in College English Writing. International Journal of Linguistics and Communication, 3(2), 82–97.

Zhang, Z. (Victor). (2016). Student engagement with computer-generated feedback: A case study. ELT Journal, 71(3), 317–328.

Zhang, Z. (Victor). (2020). Engaging with automated writing evaluation (AWE) feedback on L2 writing: Student perceptions and revisions. Assessing Writing, 43 (April).

Zhang, Z. (Victor), & Hyland, K. (2018). Student engagement with teacher and automated feedback on L2 writing. Assessing Writing, 36, 90–102.

Zupanc, K., & Bosnić, Z. (2015). Advances in the field of automated essay evaluation. Informatica (Slovenia), 39(4), 383–395. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan
ISSN: 0215-9643 | E-ISSN: 2442-8655
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat (LP2M) Universitas Negeri Malang (UM)
Graha Rektorat, Floor 6, Jl. Semarang No 5 Malang 65145

Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View My Stats