Vocabulary Learning Strategies Employed by Indonesian Virtual Exchange Students

Dias Tiara Putri Utomo, Finaty Ahsanah, Arum Islami, Suratmi Suratmi, Suhariyati Suhariyati


This study investigated the types of vocabulary learning strategies (VLS) employed by Indonesian college students. The study specifically aimed to find out (a) the most and the least frequently used VLS, and (b) the most useful VLS. A total of 105 nursing students who attended a virtual exchange program during the odd semester of 2021/2022 academic year participated in this study. This was ex post facto research which used a vocabulary learning strategy questionnaire to collect the data. To answer research questions, the collected data were analyzed by using SPSS statistics 25.0, including the descriptive statistics. The overall findings revealed that in terms of five categories, determination strategies were reported to be the most frequently used strategies and social strategies were the least ones. In terms of individual strategies, the most frequently used vocabulary learning strategies were ‘using bilingual dictionaries either print or electronic’, ‘guessing word meaning through the context’, and ‘learning new vocabulary items through vocabulary videos”. The least frequent ones were ‘asking the word’s synonym to the teacher’ and ‘communicating with native speakers. Furthermore, the participants assumed that ‘using bilingual dictionaries either print or electronic’ and ‘taking notes of new words’ as the most useful strategies. Considering the results, both students and lecturers must be more aware of the effective learning strategies to achieve better results


vocabulary learning; vocabulary learning strategies; VLS questionnaire; virtual exchange

Full Text:



Abbasi, W. T., Ahmad, M. M., & Mohammed, F. A. E. (2019). Learners’ perceptions of monolingual dictionaries in learning English as a foreign language. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 7(3), 10–18. https://doi.org/doi: 10.7575/-aiac.ijels.v.7n.3p.10.

Ali, H. I. H. (2012). Monolingual dictionary use in an EFL context. English Language Teaching, 5(7), 2–7.

Alqahtani, M. (2015). The importance of vocabulary in language learning and how to be taught. International Journal of Teaching and Education, 3(3), 21–34. https://doi.org/10.20472/TE.2015.3.3.002

Amirian, S. M. R., & Heshmatifar, Z. (2013). A survey on vocabulary learning strategies: A case of Iranian EFL university students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4(3), 636.

Asgari, A., & Mustapha, G. B. (2011). The type of vocabulary learning strategies used by ESL students in University Putra Malaysia. English Language Teaching, 4(2), 84. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v4n2p84

Bai, Z. (2018). An analysis of English vocabulary learning strategies. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 9(4), 849–855. https://doi.org/¬10.17507/-jltr.0904.24

Baskin, S., Iscan, A., Karagoz, B., & Birol, G. (2017). The use of vocabulary learning strategies in teaching Turkish as a second language. JournBaskin, S., Iscan, A., Karagoz, B., & Birol, G. (2017). The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Teaching Turkish as a Second Language. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(9), 126–134.Al of Education and Practice, 8(9), 126–134.

Boonkongsaen, N. (2013). Factors affecting vocabulary learning strategies: A synthesized study. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology (NUJST), 20(2), 45–53.

Dóczi, B. (2011). Comparing the vocabulary learning strategies of high school and university students: A pilot study. WoPaLP, 5, 138–158.

Han, Y. (2014). Foreign language vocabulary learning strategies: Patterns of use among college students.

Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English language teaching. In London/New York.

Huong, L. P. H. (2018). A survey study on academic vocabulary learning strategies by EFL university students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 9(5), 1009–1016.

Kafipour, R., & Naveh, M. H. (2011). Vocabulary learning strategies and their contribution to reading comprehension of EFL undergraduate students in Kerman province. European Journal of Social Sciences, 23(4), 626–647.

Kameli, S., Mostapha, G. B., & Baki, R. B. (2012). The Influence of Formal Language Learning Environment on Vocabulary Learning Strategies. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 3(1). https://¬doi.org/10.4304/jltr.3.1.23-29

Komol, T., & Sripetpun, W. (2014). Vocabulary learning strategies employed by undergraduate students and its relationship to their vocabulary knowledge. Faculty of Liberal Arts, Prince of Songkla University.

Lai, Y., Saab, N., & Admiraal, W. (2022). Learning strategies in self-directed language learning using mobile technology in higher education: A systematic scoping review. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 7749–7780. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-022-1094¬5¬-5

Letchumanan, K., Muthusamy, P., Govindasamy, P., & Farashaiyan, A. (2016). An overview of preferred vocabulary learning strategies by learners. Asian Social Science, 12(10), 174–179.

Liu, Z. L. (2011). A study on English vocabulary learning strategies for non-English majors in independent college. Cross-Cultural Communication, 6(4), 152–164.

Mustika, A., Rahman, M., & Mesalina, J. (2021). Students ‘perception on the use of online dictionary. UIN Sulthan Thaha Saifuddin Jambi.

Nirattisai, S., & Chiramanee, T. (2014). Vocabulary learning strategies of Thai university students and its relationship to vocabulary size. International Journal of English Language Education, 2(1), 273–287. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijele.v2i1.5366

Noprianto, E., & Purnawarman, P. (2019). EFL students’ vocabulary learning strategies and their affixes knowledge. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 15(1), 262–275. https://doi.¬org/10.¬17263-/jlls.547730

O’Dowd, R. (2017). Virtual Exchange and internationalising the classroom. Training Language and Culture, 1(4), 8–24.

Pradina, O., & Listyani, L. (2021). Vocabulary mastery strategies used by Indonesian extensive reading learners. Prominent, 4(1), 1–18. https://doi.¬org/-10.24176/pro.v4i1.5731

Rabadi, R. I. (2016). Vocabulary learning strategies employed by undergraduate EFL Jordanian students. English Language and Literature Studies, 6(1), 47–58.

Saengpakdeejit, R. (2014). Awareness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies among EFL Students in Khon Kaen University. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 4(6), 1101–1108.

Schmitt, N., & Schmitt, D. (2020). Vocabulary in language teaching. Cambridge university press.

Sharma, R. (2020). Online learning and it’s positive and negative impact in higher education during Covid-19. EPRA International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (IJMR), 6(9), 177–181.

Susanto, A. (2017). The teaching of vocabulary: A perspective. Jurnal Kata: Penelitian Tentang Ilmu Bahasa Dan Sastra, 1(2), 182–191. https://-doi.org/10.22216/jk.v1i2.2136

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um048v28i2p57-65


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan
ISSN: 0215-9643 | E-ISSN: 2442-8655
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat (LP2M) Universitas Negeri Malang (UM)
Graha Rektorat, Floor 6, Jl. Semarang No 5 Malang 65145
Homepage: http://journal2.um.ac.id/index.php/jip
E-mail: jip@um.ac.id

Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View My Stats