Factors Affecting the Wisdom of Counselors: Perceptions of Indonesian Pre-service Counselors

Herdi Herdi, Sunaryo Kartadinata, Agus Taufiq


Abstract: Early theoretical and empirical studies have recommended scholars to explore the factors affecting wisdom of counselors. To enact this void, the present study explores the factors affecting wisdom from the perspectives of Indonesian pre-service counselors (henceforth, participants). This study employed survey design to capture the participants’ perceptions. Participants involved in this study were 517 sixth semester pre-service counselors from eleven Guidance and Counseling Departments in Indonesia. Data were collected using questionnaire of Counselor Wisdom Antecedents Scale in the form of Likert five-level scale. The data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. The findings captured that there are six factors affecting wisdom of counselor from the perspectives of Indonesian pre-service counselors, namely: (1) social interaction and learning from experiences, (2) values and personality, (3) personal attributes, (4) meta-cognitive skills (critical and depth thinking skills), (5) context-facilitative, and (6) expertise/professionality. The results of this study recommend that counselor educators in the counseling education and supervision programs consider and optimize these factors to develop the wisdom of pre-service counselors.

Abstrak: Kajian teoretik dan empirik terdahulu merekomendasikan untuk mengeksplorasi berbagai faktor-faktor kearifan konselor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengeksplorasi berbagai faktor-faktor kearifan konselor menurut pandangan calon konselor Indonesia. Penelitian menggunakan metode deskriptif jenis survei. Partisipan penelitian berjumlah 517 calon konselor semester keenam dari sebelas Departemen Bimbingan dan Konseling di Indonesia yang dipilih menggunakan teknik two stage random sampling. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner Skala Faktor-faktor Kearifan Konselor yang berbentuk skala lima jenjang. Teknik analisis data menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan analisis faktor eksploratoris. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat enam faktor kearifan konselor menurut pandangan calon konselor Indonesia, yaitu: (1) interaksi sosial dan belajar dari pengalaman; (2) nilai-nilai dan kepribadian; (3) atribut pribadi; (4) kecakapan metakognitif; (5) konteks-fasilitatif; dan (6) kepakaran. Implikasinya, pendidik konselor dalam program pendidikan dan supervisi konselor perlu memerhatikan dan mengoptimalkan keenam faktor tersebut untuk mengembangkan kearifan calon konselor konselor.


counselor education and supervision; factors affecting wisdom; guidance and counseling; pre-service counselor; wisdom; pendidikan dan supervisi konselor; faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi kearifan; bimbingan dan konseling; calon konselor; kearifan

Full Text:



Aczel, B. (2019). Low Levels of Wisdom. In R. J. Sternberg & J. Gluck (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Wisdom (pp. 483–499). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ardelt, M. (2009). How Similar are Wise Men and Women? A Comparison Across Two Age Cohorts. Research in Human Development, 6(1), 9–26.

Ardelt, M. (2010). Are Older Adults Wiser than College Students? A Comparison of Two Age Cohorts. Journal of Adult Development, 17(4), 193–207.

Ardelt, M., & Oh, H. (2010). Wisdom: Definition, Assessement, and Its Relation to Successful Cognitive and Emotional Aging. In D. V. Jeste & C. Depp (Eds.), Successful Cognitive and Emotional Aging (pp. 87–113). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Asadi, S., Amiri, H., Molavi, S., & Noaparast, K. B. (2011). A Cross-Sectional Study of Self Reported Wisdom Development: From Adolescence Through Adulthood. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(2), 482–492.

Baltes, P. B., Glück, J., & Kunamann, U. (2002). Wisdom: its Structure and Function in Regulating Successful Life Span Development. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 327–347). New York: Oxford University Press.

Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom: A Metaheuristic (Pragmatic) to Orchestrate Mind and Virtue Toward Excellence. American Psychologist, 55(1), 122–136.

Barris, J., & Ruff, J. C. C. (2011). Thoughts on Wisdom and Its Relation to Critical Thinking, Multiculturalism, and Global Awareness. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis, 31(1), 5–20.

Brezina, I., & Van Oudenhoven, J. P. (2012). Do National Cultures or Religions Shape Conceptions of Wisdom? Studia Psychologica, 54(4), 299–311.

Brown, S. C. (2004). Learning Across The Campus: How College Facilitates The Development of Wisdom. Journal of College Student Development, 45(2), 134–148.

Chen, L.-M., Wu, P.-J., Cheng, Y.-Y., & Hsueh, H.-I. (2011). A Qualitative Inquiry of Wisdom Development: Educators’ Perspectives. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 72(3), 171–187.

Cheraghi, F., Kadivar, P., Ardelt, M., Asgari, A., & Farzad, V. (2015). Gender As A Moderator of The Relation Between Age Cohort and Three-Dimensional Wisdom in Iranian Culture. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 81(1–2), 3–26.

Erikson, E. H., & Erikson, J. M. (1998). The Life Cycle Completed (Extended Version). WW Norton & Company.

Erikson, E. H., Erikson, J. M., & Kivnick, H. Q. (1994). Vital Involvement in Old Age. WW Norton & Company.

Erikson, E. H., (1959). Identity and The Life Cycle: Selected Papers.

Etezadi, S., & Pushkar, D. (2013). Why are Wise People Happier? An Explanatory Model of Wisdom and Emotional Well-Being in Older Adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(3), 929–950.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics using SPSS:(and Sex, Drugs and Rock’n’roll) (Vol. 497). Sage.

Frager, R. (2013). Heart, Self, & Soul: The Sufi Psychology of Growth, Balance, and Harmony. Quest Books.

Frantz, G. (2014). Wisdom: Experience or Education? Psychological Perspectives, 57(1), 1–3.

Germer, C. K., & Siegel, R. D. (2012). Wisdom and Compassion in Psychotherapy: Deepening Mindfulness in Clinical Practice. Guilford Press.

Glück, J., & Bluck, S. (2011). Laypeople’s Conceptions of Wisdom and Its Development: Cognitive and Integrative Views. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66(3), 321–324.

Glück, J., Strasser, I., & Bluck, S. (2009). Gender Differences in Implicit Theories of Wisdom. Research in Human Development, 6(1), 27–44.

Green, H., Barkham, M., Kellett, S., & Saxon, D. (2014). Therapist Effects and IAPT Psychological Wellbeing Practitioners (PWPs): A Multilevel Modelling and Mixed Methods Analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 63, 43–54.

Hanna, F. J., Bemak, F., & Chung, R. C. (1999). Toward a New Paradigm for Multicultural Counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77(2), 125–134.

Hanna, F. J., & Ottens, A. J. (1995). The Role of Wisdom in Psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 5(3), 195–219. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0101273

Herdi, H, Kartadinata, S., & Taufiq, A. (2018a). Kearifan Konselor Multibudaya dan Pengembangannya Menurut Konselor. In Konvensi Nasional Bimbingan dan Konseling Ke-XX (pp. 80–91). Pekanbaru: UR Press.

Herdi, H, Kartadinata, S., & Taufiq, A. (2018b). Konsensus Pendidik Konselor Tentang Kearifan Konselor Multibudaya dan Pengembangannya. In Konvensi Nasional Bimbingan dan Konseling ke-XX (pp. 1039– 1047). Pekanbaru: UR Press.

Herdi, H, Kartadinata, S., & Taufiq, A. (2018c). Peran Kepribadian Terhadap Kearifan Calon Konselor Multibudaya. In Konvensi Nasional Bimbingan dan Konseling ke-XX (pp. 392–398). Pekanbaru: UR Press.

Herdi, H., Kartadinata, S., & Taufiq, A. (2017). Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kearifan Konselor Menurut Perspektif Calon Konselor Etnis Jawa. Jurnal Penelitian dan Evaluasi Pendidikan, 21(2), 162–174.

Hollingworth, L., Sánchez-Escobedo, P., Graudina, L., Misiuniene, J., & Park, K. (2013). Gender Differences on The Concept of Wisdom: An International Comparison. Gifted and Talented International, 28(1–2), 219–225.

Igarashi, H., Levenson, M. R., & Aldwin, C. M. (2018). The Development of Wisdom: A Social Ecological Approach. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 73(8), 1350–1358.

Jeste, D. V., & Oswald, A. J. (2014). Individual and Societal Wisdom: Explaining The Paradox of Human Aging and High Well-Being. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 77(4), 317–330.

Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An Index of Factorial Simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31–36.

Karelitz, T. M., Jarvin, L., & Sternberg, R. J. (2010). The Meaning of Wisdom and Its Development Throughout Life. In R. M. Lerner & W. F. Overton (Eds.), The Handbook of Life-Span Development. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470880166.hlsd001023

Kunzmann, U., & Baltes, P. B. (2003). Wisdom-Related Knowledge: Affective, Motivational, and Interpersonal Correlates. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(9), 1104–1119.

Kunzmann, U., & Baltes, P. B. (2005). The Psychology of Wisdom: Theoretical and Empirical Challenges.

Laska, K. M., Smith, T. L., Wislocki, A. P., Minami, T., & Wampold, B. E. (2013). Uniformity of Evidence- Based Treatments in Practice? Therapist Effects in The Delivery of Cognitive Processing Therapy for PTSD. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(1), 31–41. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031294

Le, T. N. (2008). Cultural Values, Life Experiences, and Wisdom. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 66(4), 259–281.

Le, T. N. (2011). Life Satisfaction, Openness Value, Self-Transcendence, and Wisdom. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(2), 171–182.

Levitt, H. M. (1999). The Development of Wisdom: An Analysis of Tibetan Buddhist Experience. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 39(2), 86–105.

Levitt, H. M., & Piazza-Bonin, E. (2016). Wisdom and Psychotherapy: Studying Expert Therapists’ Clinical Wisdom to Explicate Common Processes. Psychotherapy Research, 26(1), 31–47.

Mickler, C., & Staudinger, U. M. (2008). Personal Wisdom: Validation and Age-Related Differences of A Performance Measure. Psychology and Aging, 23(4), 787–799.

Montgomery, A., Barber, C., & McKee, P. (2002). A Phenomenological Study of Wisdom in Later Life. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 54(2), 139–157.

Nissen-Lie, H. A., Havik, O. E., Høglend, P. A., Monsen, J. T., & Rønnestad, M. H. (2013). The Contribution of The Quality of Therapists’ Personal Lives to The Development of The Working Alliance. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(4), 483–495. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033643

Önal, M. (2010). Wisdom (Hikmah) as A Holistic Basis for Inter-Religious Education. In International Handbook of Inter-Religious Education (pp. 221–234). Springer.

Orwoll, L., & Perlmutter, M. (1990). The Study of Wise Persons: Integrating a Personality Perspective. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its Nature, Origins, and Development (pp. 160–177). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Osterlund, L. C. (2014). Wisdom in The Counseling Relationship. Jesuit Higher Education, 3(2), 74–84.

Osterlund, L. C. (2016). Developing Wisdom in Counselors of The Futurep. Ignatian Pedagogy Applied to Counselor Education and Supervision. VISTAS Online, 1–11.

Owen, J., & Hilsenroth, M. J. (2014). Treatment Adherence: The Importance of Therapist Flexibility in Relation to Therapy Outcomes. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 61(2), 280–288. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035753

Parisi, J. M., Rebok, G. W., Carlson, M. C., Fried, L. P., Seeman, T. E., Tan, E. J., … Piferi, R. L. (2009). Can the Wisdom of Aging Be Activated and Make A Difference Societally? Educational Gerontology, 35(10), 867–879.

Pasupathi, M., Staudinger, U. M., & Baltes, P. B. (2001). Seeds of Wisdom: Adolescents’ Knowledge and Judgment about Difficult Life Problems. Developmental Psychology, 37(3), 351–361.

Phan, L. T., Rivera, E. T., Volker, M., & Maddux, C. D. (2009). Wisdom in Multicultural Counseling: The Omitted Ingredient. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 43(1), 154–161.

Saxon, D., & Barkham, M. (2012). Patterns of Therapist Variability: Therapist Effects and The Contribution of Patient Severity and Risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(4), 535–546. https://doi. org/10.1037/a0028898

Saxon, D., Barkham, M., Foster, A., & Parry, G. (2017). The Contribution of Therapist Effects to Patient Dropout and Deterioration in The Psychological Therapies. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 24(3), 575–588.

Stange, A., & Kunzmann, U. (2008). Fostering Wisdom: A Psychological Perspective. In Teaching for Wisdom (pp. 23–36). Springer.

Staudinger, U. M. (1999). Older and Wiser? Integrating Results on The Relationship Between Age and Wisdom- Related Performance. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23(3), 641–664.

Staudinger, U. M., & Baltes, P. B. (1996). Interactive Minds: A Facilitative Setting for Wisdom-Related Performance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(4), 746–762.

Staudinger, U. M., Dörner, J., & Mickler, C. (2005). Wisdom and Personality. In R. J. Sternberg & J. Jordan (Eds.), A Handbook of Wisdom: Psychological Perspectives (pp. 191–219). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Staudinger, U. M., & Glück, J. (2011). Psychological Wisdom Research: Commonalities and Differences in A Growing Field. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 215–241.

Staudinger, U. M., Maciel, A. G., Smith, J., & Baltes, P. B. (1998). What Predicts Wisdom‐Related Performance? A First Look at Personality, Intelligence, and Facilitative Experiential Contexts. European Journal of Personality, 12(1), 1–17.

Sternberg, R. J. (2005). Foolishness. In R. J. Sternberg & J. Jordan (Eds.), A Handbook of Wisdom: Psychological Perspectives (pp. 331–352). Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J. (2019). The Critical Important of Wisdom in The World Today. In R. J. Sternberg & J. Gluck (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Wisdom (pp. 3–9). Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J., Jarvin, L., & Reznitskaya, A. (2008). Teaching for Wisdom Through History: Infusing Wise Thinking Skills in the School Curriculum. In M. Ferrari & G. Potworowski (Eds.), Teaching for Wisdom (pp. 37–57). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6532-3_3

Sternberg, R. J., Reznitskaya, A., & Jarvin, L. (2007). Teaching for Wisdom: What Matters is Not Just What Students Know, But How They Use It. London Review of Education, 5(2), 143–158. https://doi. org/10.1080/14748460701440830

Sternberg, R. J. (1998). A Balance Theory of Wisdom. Review of General Psychology, 2(4), 347–365.

Sternberg, R. J. (2005). Older but Not Wiser? The Relationship Between Age and Wisdom. Ageing International, 30(1), 5–26.

Sternberg, R. J., Jarvin, L., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2009). Teaching for Wisdom, Intelligence, Creativity, and Success. Corwin Press.

Thomas, S., & Kunzmann, U. (2013). Age Differences in Wisdom-Related Knowledge: Does The Age Relevance of The Task Matter? Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69(6), 897–905.

Tukiainen, A. (2010). Philosophical Counselling As A Process of Fostering Wisdom in The Form of Virtues. Practical Philosophy, 10(1), 48–57.

Webster, J. D., Bohlmeijer, E. T., & Westerhof, G. J. (2014). Time to Flourish: The Relationship of Temporal Perspective to Well-Being and Wisdom Across Adulthood. Aging & Mental Health, 18(8), 1046–1056.

Webster, J. D., Westerhof, G. J., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2012). Wisdom and Mental Health Across The Lifespan. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69(2), 209–218.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um001v4i42019p122


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Herdi Herdi, Sunaryo Kartadinata, Agus Taufiq

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Kajian Bimbingan dan Konseling
ISSN 2503-3417 (online), ISSN 2548-4311 (print)
Email: jkbk.fip@um.ac.id

Find Jurnal Kajian Bimbingan dan Konseling on:


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

  View Visitor Stats