Inclusive Education Services for Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Pandemic Period: The Dilemma of General Elementary Schools in Indonesia

Asep Supena, Uswatun Hasanah, Ahmad Januar


Children with mild intellectual disabilities need to receive optimal educational services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to analyze inclusive education services for children with mild intellectual disabilities during the pandemic. This study used a survey method with a sample of 10 inclusive elementary schools in Jakarta with 25 teachers and 10 parents who have children with mild intellectual disabilities. The finding shows that inclusive education services in the sub-district of Setiabudi, South Jakarta need improvement and improvement in all aspects, from teachers, curriculum, media and in terms of parents. All components must contribute to providing optimal learning services for children with mild intellectual disabilities to match the vision of inclusive education itself, where schools make adjustments both in terms of curriculum, educational facilities and infrastructure, as well as learning systems tailored to the individual needs of students. Thus the results of this study can be used as benchmarks for us as academics, especially for policy makers to contribute to improving the quality of education, especially inclusive education services for children with special needs.


children with mild intellectual disabilities; inclusive education service; pandemic period

Full Text:



Ata, R., & Yıldırım, K. (2019). Exploring turkish pre-service teachers’ perceptions and views of digital literacy. Education Sciences, 9 (1).

Bevan-Brown, J. (2013). Including people with disabilities: An indigenous perspective. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17 (6), 571–583.

Chen, LJ (2017). Critical components for inclusion of students with moderate intellectual disabilities into general junior high school. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 63 (1), 8–16.

Clarke, LS, Haydon, T., Bauer, A., & Epperly, AC (2016). Inclusion of students with an intellectual disability in the general education classroom with the use of response cards. Preventing School Failure, 60 (1), 35–42.

Cooc, N., Kim, JS, & Kim, JS (2016). Journal of Educational Psychology Network Analysis of Elementary School Classrooms Peer Influence on Children’s Reading Skills: A Social Network Analysis of Elementary School Classrooms.

Cornelius, DJK, & Balakrishnan, J. (2012). Inclusive education for students with intellectual disability. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, 23 (2), 81–93.

Dhawan, S. (2020). Online Learning: A Panacea in the Time of COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49 (1), 5–22.

Engelbrecht, P., Oswald, M., Swart, E., & Eloff, I. (2003). Including Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Stressful for teachers? International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 50 (3), 293–308.

Fahrurrozi, Hasanah, U., & Dewi, RS (2019). Integrated Learning Design Based on Google Classroom to Improve Student Digital Literacy. 2019 5th International Conference on Education and Technology, ICET 2019, 108–111.

Faris, A. (2017). Teaching students with intellectual disabilities: Constructivism or behaviorism? Educational Research and Reviews, 12 (21), 1031–1035.

Forlin, C., Douglas, G., & Hattie, J. (1996). Inclusive practices: How accepting are teachers? International Journal of Phytoremediation, 43 (2), 119–133.

Forlin, C., Hattie, J., & Douglas, G. (1996). Inclusion: Is it stressful for teachers? Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 21 (3), 199–217.

Gasteiger-Klicpera, B., Klicpera, C., Gebhardt, M., & Schwab, S. (2013). Attitudes and experiences of parents regarding inclusive and special school education for children with learning and intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17 (7), 663–681.

Göransson, K., Bengtsson, K., Hansson, S., Klang, N., Lindqvist, G., & Nilholm, C. (2020). Segregated education as a challenge to inclusive processes: a total population study of Swedish teachers’ views on education for pupils with intellectual disability. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 0 (0), 1–16.

Gurgel, R. (2015). Building Strong Teacher – Student Relationships in Pluralistic Music Classrooms. Music Educators Journal, 101 (4), 77–84.

Hunt, BD, & Oyarzun, B. (2020). Online Learning Perspectives of Native American Students. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 48 (3), 321–334.

Kassah, BLL, Kassah, AK, & Phillips, D. (2018). Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Special School Education in Ghana. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 65 (3), 341–354.

RI Ministry of Health. (2019). Disability Situation. Center for Data and Information, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia, 1–10.

Kirk, S., Gallagher, JJ, Coleman, MR, & Anastasiow, N. (2009). Educating Exeptional Children. In Educating Exeptional Children.

Klaharn, R. (2017). the Need Assessment for Improving the Competence of Thai Teachers in the Measurement and Evaluation of Analytical Thinking. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning, 1 (2), 1–16.

Koh, YH (2018). A strategy to improve pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy towards inclusive physical education for students with intellectual disability and autism. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 22 (8), 839–855.

McMaugh, PJ, Wiese, MY, & Stancliffe, RJ (2017). The experiences of parents in supporting their son or daughter with intellectual disability to learn about dying and death. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 42 (3), 285–294.

Nations, U. (2020). Education during COVID-19 and beyond AUGUST 2 0 2 0. August, 2–26.

Nguyen, N. (2013). Scripting “Safe” Schools: Mapping Urban Education and Zero Tolerance During the Long War. Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 35 (4), 277–297.

Note, I., Office, UB, Bureau, I., Policy, E., Offices, U., & Covid-, T. (nd). COVID -19 Crisis and Curriculum: Sustaining Quality Outcomes in the Context of. 1–5.

Nurjamila siregar, HN (2019). 1945 Constitution. 2, 1–19.

Opoku, MP, Tawiah, R., Agyei-Okyere, E., Osman, S., & Afriyie, SA (2019). Teaching students with Down syndrome in regular classrooms in Ghana: views of secondary school mathematics teachers. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 66 (2), 218–232.

Peterson-Ahmad, MB, Pemberton, J., & Hovey, KA (2018). Virtual Learning Environments for Teacher Preparation. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 54 (4), 165–169.

Prihantoro, CR (2014). The perspective of the curriculum in Indonesia on environmental education. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 4 (1), 77–83.

Puranik, CS, Phillips, BM, Lonigan, CJ, & Gibson, E. (2018). Home literacy practices and preschool children’s emergent writing skills: An initial investigation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 42 (May 2016), 228–238.

Reimers, F., Schleicher, A., Saavedra, J., & Tuominen, S. (2020). Supporting the continuation of teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Oecd, 1 (1), 1–38.

Rodríguez Herrero, P., Izuzquiza Gasset, D., & Cabrera Garcia, A. (2020). Inclusive education at a Spanish University: the voice of students with intellectual disability. Disability and Society, 0 (0), 1–23.

Rogers, C. (2013). Inclusive education and intellectual disability: A sociological engagement with Martha Nussbaum. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17 (9), 988–1002.

Rudd, H., Grove, N., & Pring, T. (2007). Teaching productive sign modifications to children with intellectual disabilities. AAC: Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 23 (2), 154–163.

Saliyeva, AZ, Zhumabekova, FN, Kashkynbay, BB, Saurbekova, G., Tauasarova, D., Toktarbaev, D., & Sakenov, J. (2016). On the students’ ability to use digital educational resources. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11 (11), 4669–4679.

Salvador-Carulla, L., Martínez-Leal, R., Heyler, C., Alvarez-Galvez, J., Veenstra, MY, García-Ibáñez, J., Carpenter, S., Bertelli, M., Munir, K ., Torr, J., & Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, HMJ (2015). Training on intellectual disability in health sciences: The European perspective. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 61 (1), 20–31.

Şener, N., Türk, C., & Taş, E. (2015). Improving Science Attitude and Creative Thinking through Science Education Project: A Design, Implementation and Assessment. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 3 (4), 57–67.

Srivastava, M., de Boer, AA, & Pijl, SJ (2015). Know How to Teach Me… Evaluating the Effects of an In-Service Training Program for Regular School Teachers Toward Inclusive Education. International Journal of School and Educational Psychology, 3 (4), 219–230.

Srivastava, M., de Boer, AA, & Pijl, SJ (2017). Preparing for the inclusive classroom: changing teachers’ attitudes and knowledge. Teacher Development, 21 (4), 561–579.

Suppawittaya, P., Yiemphat, P., & Yasri, P. (2020). Effects of Social Distancing, Self-Quarantine and Self-Isolation during the COVID-19 Pandemic on People ‘s Well-Being, and How to Cope with It. International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research, 5 (June), 12–20.

UNESCO. (2009). Inclusive Education. Teachers’ Pension Plan Annual Report, 12 (3), 2009–2009.

Wahyuno, E., Ruminiati, & Sutrisno. (2014). Development of Inclusive Education Curriculum for Elementary School Level. Elementary School, 77–84.

Yildiz, EP (2020). Opinions of academicians on digital literacy: A phenomenology study. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 15 (3), 469–478.

Yulianti, K. (2015). International Journal about Parents in Education The New Curriculum Implementation in Indonesia: A Study in Two Primary Schools. 9 (1), 157–168.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pendidikan Luar Biasa

Journal "Jurnal Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Pendidikan Luar Biasa" Indexing by:


Journal JPPPLB" Statistics