The Interactive Web-Based Learning in Online Learning for Blind Students and Deaf Students in Higher Education

Eka Yuli Astuti, Teti Ratnawulan, Yoga Budhi Santoso, Dwi Endah Pertiwi, Prinanda Gustarina Ridwan, Zulfa Rahmah Effendi


Online learning has been running in Indonesian universities due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Online learning has become a challenge to both parties, lecturers, and students with special needs. The use of several online platforms for learning has not provided accessibility for students who are blind and deaf. To pursue friendly learning in inclusive classrooms for blind and deaf students, then we need a facility that supports learning for blind and deaf students. The purpose of the study is to develop a learning model that can be used for online learning using an interactive website. The interactive Web-Based Learning Model is an innovative learning model which is designed for special needs students to access online learning more effectively. The procedure used in this interactive web-based learning model is that every blind and deaf student can access learning through various devices connected to their cell phone or laptop to make the learning process two-way and effective. The research was conducted using the research & development method which consists of the stages of producing a model product and then validating and testing the model. The result of this study is an online learning model using a website that can present learning material from lecturers in the form of pages that all the menus can be read directly by blind students through a screen reader on their devices (user friendly) and they can send assignments via voice note options. The website is equipped with videos accompanied by subtitles so that it has accessibility to deaf students. This model consists of the following stages: 1) Planning which includes needs analysis and content analysis, 2) The learning process through an interactive website containing structured learning material, interactive learning through video and discussion features, 3) Evaluation includes test and non-test in the form of process and result in analysis.


inclusive education; web-based learning; blind students; deaf students

Full Text:



Anastasiou, D., Kauffman, J. M., & Di Nuovo, S. (2015). Inclusive education in Italy: description and reflections on full inclusion. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 30(4), 429–443.

Andajani, S. J., & Pamuji, P. (2021). Online Learning of Children's Education Subject with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder for Undergraduate Students of Special Education. Journal of ICSAR, 5(1), 29-37.

Astuti, E. Y., Pertiwi, D. E., & Santoso, Y. B. (2022). Effectiveness of Multimedia-Based Learning Materials For Deaf Students In Online Learning. Multicultural and Diversity, 1(1), 34–44.

Atowa, U. C., Hansraj, R., & Wajuihian, S. O. (2019). Visual problems: A review of prevalence studies on visual impairment in school-age children. International Journal of Ophthalmology, 12(6), 1037–1043.

Deejring, K. (2014). The Design of Web-based Learning Model Using Collaborative Learning Techniques and a Scaffolding System to Enhance Learners’ Competency in Higher Education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 436–441.

Din, E. (2017). Web-based Education and Accessibility. International Journal of Technology in Education and Science (IJTES), January 2017.

Ediyanto, E., & Efendi, M. (2021). It is Necessary to Develop an Assessment System that all Students can accept at the Universitas Negeri Malang: An Editorial Board Report. Journal of ICSAR, 5(2), 1-2.

Haug, P. (2017). Understanding inclusive education: ideals and reality. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 19(3), 206–217.

Kharade, K., & Peese, H. (2012). Learning by E-learning for visually impaired students: Opportunities or again marginalisation? E-Learning and Digital Media, 9(4), 439–448.

Kouroupetroglou, G., Pino, A., & Kacorri, H. (2011). A Model of Accessibility Services Provision for Students with Disabilities in Higher Education. Universal Learning Design, January, 1–10.

Kumar, S. P., & Dharma Raja, B. W. (2010). Web-Based Technology For Children With Learning Disabilities. I-Manager’s Journal of Educational Technology, 7(1), 8–13.

Lopez-Gavira, R., Moriña, A., & Morgado, B. (2019). Challenges to inclusive education at the university: the perspective of students and disability support service staff. Innovation, 0(0), 1–13.

Moriña, A. (2017). Inclusive education in higher education: challenges and opportunities. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 32(1), 3–17.

Mufadhol, M., Siswanto, S., Susatyono, D. D., & Dewi, M. U. (2017). The Phenomenon of Research and Development Method in Research of Software Engineering. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 1(1), 1.

Nunan, T., George, R., & McCausland, H. (2000). Inclusive education in universities: Why it is important and how it might be achieved. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 4(1), 63–88.

Peni, N. R. N. (2022). How does ethnomathematics work within an online platform?. Journal of Education for Sustainability and Diversity, 1(1), 101–108.

Perera-Rodríguez, V. H., & Moriña Díez, A. (2019). Technological challenges and students with disabilities in higher education. Exceptionality, 27(1), 65–76.

Permvattana, R. (2013). E-Learning for the Vision Impaired: a Holistic Perspective. International Journal of Cyber Society and Education, 6(1), 15–30.

Radha, R., Mahalakshmi, K., Kumar, V. S., & Saravanakumar, A. R. (2020). E-Learning during Lockdown of Covid-19 Pandemic: A Global Perspective. International Journal of Control and Automation, 13(4), 1088–1099.

Rofiah, K. (2022). Between Special and Regular Settings: The Teachers Attitude towards Inclusion. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION, 1(1), 48–60.

Said, M., Hn, W., Azizah, S., Darmawan, D., & Anwar, C. R. (2022). Digital Skills of Blind College Students in the Educational Process during a Pandemic. Journal of ICSAR, 6(1), 67-77.

Sahu, P. (2020). Closure of Universities Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on Education and Mental Health of Students and Academic Staff. Cureus, 2019(4), 4–9.

Shahzad, A., Hassan, R., Aremu, A. Y., Hussain, A., & Lodhi, R. N. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 in E-learning on higher education institution students: the group comparison between male and female. Quality and Quantity, 0123456789.

Shevlin, M., Kenny, M., & McNeela, E. (2004). Participation in higher education for students with disabilities: An Irish perspective. Disability and Society, 19(1), 15–30.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of ICSAR

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of ICSAR is Indexing by:



counter  ---> View Statistic

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.